We present preliminary results on the measurement of a variety of exclusive hadron interactions at center of mass scattering angles of 90°. Data are also presented which show the relative transparency of nuclei to πp and pp elastic scattering in this kinematic range.
We studied 21 187 two-prong, two-prong-with-kink, and zero-prong-V events at incident kaon momentum of 1.33 GeVc using the 72-in. hydrogen bubble chamber at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory and two scanning and measuring projectors in Urbana. We determined the total and partial cross sections for all contributing reactions. For the two-body final states, some production and polarization angular distributions were measured. The angular distributions are discussed in terms of exchanges in the kinematical channels s, t, and u assuming the simplest Feynman graphs. Elastic scattering is analyzed as a diffraction process.
The differential elastic scattering cross section for 2.24 GeV/ c K − p collisions has been measured in film from the Brookhaven 20″ bubble chamber. The total elastic cross section is found to be 6.2 ± 0.7 mb. The exponential dependence on square of the momentum t in (GeV/ c ) 2 is fitted by ( d σ d Ω elastic = (12.4 ± 1.0 mb/sr) exp (7.81 ± 0.25)t . A A fit to a black disc model requires a radius of 0.95 ± 0.05 fm.
Interactions of 2.08−BeVc positive pions with protons have been studied using the 20-in. hydrogen bubble chamber and the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Using 3000 elastic and 8000 inelastic events, the partial cross sections for elastic scattering and for meson production have been measured. The ρ+, ρ0, ω0, and η0 resonances are produced strongly and emerge predominantly in the forward direction in the center-of-mass system, suggesting a peripheral mechanism for their production. The possibility of explaining these reactions by specific particle-exchange models is investigated. More than 75% of the ρ0, ω0, and η0 are produced with the N33* (1238) isobar. The N* (1688) is produced in about one-third of the π+π+N final states. Cross sections for production of ρ+p, π+pω, N33*ω, π+pη, N33*η, π+pρ0, N33*ρ0, N15*π+, and N33*π0, are given. A1, B, φ, and X mesons are not observed.
A total of 24 360 events having two charged particles in the final state from π−+p interactions at an incident π− momentum of 2.7 GeVc have been analyzed. The final states π−π+n and π−π0p are found to be dominated by rho-meson production, and in addition, significant N*(1238) production is seen. The partial cross sections for the dominant resonant channels are σ=(pρ−)=(1.3±0.2) mb, σ(nρ0)=(2.3±0.2) mb, and σ[π−N*+(→pπ0)]=(0.5±0.2) mb. The production of the ρ− and ρ0 and the decay of the ρ− agree very well with the predictions of an absorption-modified one-pion-exchange model. The production angular distributions of the ρ0 and ρ− follow an exponential of the form Ae+Bt. The results from a least-squares fit give B(ρ−)=9.32±0.08 (GeVc)−2, B(ρ0)=10.26±0.06 (GeVc)−2. A similar analysis for the elastic-scattering events gave B(el)=7.77±0.05 (GeVc)−2. The ρ0 decay distributions are asymmetric and they have been analyzed using a simple model which includes S−P-wave interference. No clear evidence is seen for a T=0, J=0 resonance at a mass near that of the ρ. The N*(1238) resonance production is found to be in agreement with the ρ-exchange model of Stodolsky and Sakurai. Indication of other resonance production with small cross section is seen, such as A1 and A2 production in the multiple missing neutral events. The masses and widths of the ρ0 and ρ− as a function of the four-momentum transfer squared to the nucleon have been determined.
We present an analysis of ππN final states obtained from π−p interactions at 2.26 GeV/c. Strong ρ production is present in both final states. In addition, significant nucleon isobar production is observed. We observed the following cross sections: σ(π−π0p)=3.77±0.13 mb, σ(π−π+n)=5.67±0.17 mb, σ(ρ−p)=2.19±0.09 mb, σ(Δ+(1236)π−)=0.30±0.10 mb, σ(N0(1650)π0)=0.49±0.07 mb, σ(ρ0n)=2.89±0.11 mb, σ(Δ−(1236)π+)=0.11±0.06 mb, σ(N+(1470)π−)=0.24±0.06 mb, and σ(N+(1650)π−)=0.45±0.05 mb. The spin-density matrix elements are determined for the ρ0 by interpreting the ρ0 asymmetry as an interference between the resonant P wave and a T=0 S wave. A search for the ε0 in the π+π−n final state failed to yield a direct observation of this effect.
In an exposure of the Brookhaven National Laboratory 20-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a separated π+ beam at π+ momenta of 2.35 BeV/c (center-of-mass energy E*=2.30 BeV), 2.62 BeV/c (E*=2.41 BeV), and 2.90 BeV/c (E*=2.52 BeV), we have observed production of the ω0, ρ0, and η0 mesons. The production of the ω0, ρ0, and η0 is often accompanied by simultaneous production of the N*++. The momentum transfer in ω0 and ρ0 production is characteristic of peripheral collisions and suggests a single-particle exchange for the production mechanism. The decay distributions for the ω0, ρ0, and the ρ+ demonstrate the importance of modifying the single-particle-exchange model to include absorptive effects. An upper limit on the two-π decay of the ω0 is set at 2%. The width of the η0 is found to be less than 10 MeV. Elastic-scattering distributions are presented.
Interactions of 781-MeV π+ mesons with protons were investigated using the Brookhaven National Laboratory 14-in. hydrogen bubble chamber. A total of 2305 events was observed. The data were normalized to a total cross section of 22.2 mb, giving partial cross sections σ(π+p→π+p)=9.5±0.5 mb, σ(π+p→π+pπ0)=9.3±0.5 mb, σ(π+p→π+π+n)=2.15±0.17 mb, and a multiple-pion-production cross section of 1.15±0.17 mb. The elastic angular distribution was obtained and is dσdω=(0.25±0.03)+(0.90±0.11)cosθc.m.+(2.57±0.24)cos2θc.m.+(0.19±0.22)cos3θc.m.−(1.73±0.34)cos4c.m.. The kinetic-energy and angular distributions of the outgoing particles in single-pion production are given. The data are compared with other experiments in this energy region and their relevance to the shoulder in the π+p total cross section near 830 MeV is discussed.
An analysis of π−p two-prong interactions at 4.16 GeV/c is presented. The total two-prong cross section is 19.11±0.40 mb, based on 33 672 events. The elastic-scattering differential cross section shows an exponential behavior, Kexp(−AΔ2). With A=7.36±0.14 GeV−2, the "absorption parameters" are derived as C+=0.846±0.017 and γ+=0.040±0.001. The final-state π−π0p exhibits a strong ρ−, and the π−π+n a strong ρ0 and f0. The partial cross sections for the dominant resonant channels pρ−, π−Δ+(1236) (→pπ0), ρ0n, and f0n are 0.59±0.03, 0.17±0.01, 1.15±0.05, and 0.53±0.06 mb, respectively. The ρ− production and decay angular distributions do not agree with the predictions of the absorption-modified one-pion-exchange model. However, an inclusion of the contribution from ω exchange adequately accounts for the discrepancy. The ρ0 asymmetry is interpreted as a result of an interference of the resonant P wave and isospin-zero S wave, and the corresponding spin-density matrix elements are obtained. In the final state π−p+neutrals, a clear peak for the η meson and some evidence for the ω meson are seen.
Meson production in π−p and π+n interactions at 1.7 GeV/c has been studied in two bubble-chamber exposures. Combined results are presented with emphasis on single-pion production (4300 events) which is dominated by the formation of the ρ0 meson in peripheral interactions, and on double-pion production (1100 events) which shows strong formation of the ω meson. These data are compared with the predictions of particle-exchange models, including absorption, and the effects of competing channels are discussed. Evidence for a two-pion decay mode of the ω is examined quantitatively. Processes with higher meson multiplicities are described.
Single-pion production has been studied in the reactions π−p→π−π+n and π−p→π−π0p at 790, 830, and 870 MeV. A total of 4193 events in these two channels, divided approximately equally between the three energies, have been identified. The most interesting feature of the data is the tendency for events to concentrate at high values of mππ and low values of four-momentum transfer. These effects are discussed in terms of conventional isobar models and a model involving two-pion exchange. Partial cross sections for the reactions studied are reported for each energy.
A total of 1589 two-prong events were observed in an exposure of the Brookhaven National Laboratory 14-in. bubble chamber at the Cosmotron. The fit to the elastic angular distribution requires terms through cos4θc.m.. The ratio of the inelastic cross sections σ(π−p→π−π+n)σ(π−p→π−π0p) is 3.75±0.46. The π−p→π−π+n reaction is dominated by formation of the π−n isobar and an enhancement in the di-pion mass spectrum previously reported by Kirz. The π−p→π−π0p reaction shows no structure in the effective-mass spectra.