The results presented in this paper were obtained from a 105 000 frame exposure of the FNAL Hybrid Proportional Wire Chamber-30 inch Bubble Chamber System, in a tagged beam of 147 GeV/ c negative particles. Elastic, total and topological cross sections were obtained for both π − p and K − p interactions. Comparisons with other data, taken with various beam particles over large momentum intervals, show good agreement with KNO scaling, and similarity in the scaling behavior of σ n for the different beam particles.
We present the final results of a measurement of the polarization parameter P 0 in high-energy n~-p and p-p elastic scattering, performed using a target which contained polarized protons. Data were taken at beam momenta of 6.0, 8.0, 10.0 and 12.0 GeV/c for n-, and of 6.0, 10.0 and 12.0 GeV/c for n+ and p, in the interval of invariant four-momentum transfer squared-t from 0.1 to 0.75 (GeV/c)2.
Differential cross sections have been measured at Fermilab with a focusing spectrometer for π±p, K±p, and p±p elastic scattering at 50-, 70-, 100-, 140-, and 175-GeV/c incident momentum over the |t| range 0.03 to 0.8 GeV2. The results are smooth in t and are parametrized by quadratic exponential fits.
We present preliminary results on the measurement of a variety of exclusive hadron interactions at center of mass scattering angles of 90°. Data are also presented which show the relative transparency of nuclei to πp and pp elastic scattering in this kinematic range.
We have measured charged-particle multiplicities and elastic and inelastic cross sections for π+p and pp interactions at 60 GeV/c. The data are from a 30 000-picture exposure of the 30-inch bubble chamber to a tagged but unseparated positive-particle beam at Fermilab. The low-order moments of the inelastic multiplicity distributions for all charged particles are 〈n〉 = 5.60±0.09, f2 = 0.96±0.31, and 〈n〉D = 2.19±0.06 for pp reactions and 〈n〉6.23±0.10, f2 = 1.63±0.37, and 〈n〉D = 2.22±0.06 for π+p collisions.
Results are presented on π + p and K + p elastic scattering at 250 GeV/ c , the highest momentum so far reached for positive meson beams. The experiment (NA22) was performed with the european hybrid spectrometer. The π + p elastic cross section stays constant with energy while the K + p cross section increases.
We studied 21 187 two-prong, two-prong-with-kink, and zero-prong-V events at incident kaon momentum of 1.33 GeVc using the 72-in. hydrogen bubble chamber at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory and two scanning and measuring projectors in Urbana. We determined the total and partial cross sections for all contributing reactions. For the two-body final states, some production and polarization angular distributions were measured. The angular distributions are discussed in terms of exchanges in the kinematical channels s, t, and u assuming the simplest Feynman graphs. Elastic scattering is analyzed as a diffraction process.
Approximately 700 events of the reaction K − d → K − π − pp s produced by 5.5 GeV/ c kaons were used to measure the cross section for Kπ elastic scattering in the T = 3 2 state by a Chew-Low extrapolation. The cross section does not exceed 2.1 mb and has no structure for Kπ masses from threshold up to 2.0 GeV.
Results on the elastic K − π − scattering have been obtained from a study of the K − π − system in 15 000 events of the type K − p→K − π − p π + at a K − beam momentum of 4.25 GeV/ c . The on-mass-shell values of the spherical harmonic moments of the K − π − scattering angular distribution and the K − π − elastic cross section have been obtained by extrapolation to the pion pole. From these values we determined the s- and p-wave phase shifts δ 0 3 and δ 1 3 as a function of the effective mass of the K − π − system between threshold and 1.25 GeV/ c 2 . The value of | δ 0 3 | is smaller than 17° for all mass values and the existence of a p-wave cannot be neglected. At m K − π − = 1.18 GeV/ c 2 there are two solutions for the phase shifts. On the average, the cross section of the K − π − elastic scattering over the region of the effective mass considered amounts to approximately 2.5 mb.
The differential elastic scattering cross section for 2.24 GeV/ c K − p collisions has been measured in film from the Brookhaven 20″ bubble chamber. The total elastic cross section is found to be 6.2 ± 0.7 mb. The exponential dependence on square of the momentum t in (GeV/ c ) 2 is fitted by ( d σ d Ω elastic = (12.4 ± 1.0 mb/sr) exp (7.81 ± 0.25)t . A A fit to a black disc model requires a radius of 0.95 ± 0.05 fm.
Meson production in π−p and π+n interactions at 1.7 GeV/c has been studied in two bubble-chamber exposures. Combined results are presented with emphasis on single-pion production (4300 events) which is dominated by the formation of the ρ0 meson in peripheral interactions, and on double-pion production (1100 events) which shows strong formation of the ω meson. These data are compared with the predictions of particle-exchange models, including absorption, and the effects of competing channels are discussed. Evidence for a two-pion decay mode of the ω is examined quantitatively. Processes with higher meson multiplicities are described.
Single-pion production has been studied in the reactions π−p→π−π+n and π−p→π−π0p at 790, 830, and 870 MeV. A total of 4193 events in these two channels, divided approximately equally between the three energies, have been identified. The most interesting feature of the data is the tendency for events to concentrate at high values of mππ and low values of four-momentum transfer. These effects are discussed in terms of conventional isobar models and a model involving two-pion exchange. Partial cross sections for the reactions studied are reported for each energy.
A total of 1589 two-prong events were observed in an exposure of the Brookhaven National Laboratory 14-in. bubble chamber at the Cosmotron. The fit to the elastic angular distribution requires terms through cos4θc.m.. The ratio of the inelastic cross sections σ(π−p→π−π+n)σ(π−p→π−π0p) is 3.75±0.46. The π−p→π−π+n reaction is dominated by formation of the π−n isobar and an enhancement in the di-pion mass spectrum previously reported by Kirz. The π−p→π−π0p reaction shows no structure in the effective-mass spectra.
An analysis of π−p two-prong interactions at 4.16 GeV/c is presented. The total two-prong cross section is 19.11±0.40 mb, based on 33 672 events. The elastic-scattering differential cross section shows an exponential behavior, Kexp(−AΔ2). With A=7.36±0.14 GeV−2, the "absorption parameters" are derived as C+=0.846±0.017 and γ+=0.040±0.001. The final-state π−π0p exhibits a strong ρ−, and the π−π+n a strong ρ0 and f0. The partial cross sections for the dominant resonant channels pρ−, π−Δ+(1236) (→pπ0), ρ0n, and f0n are 0.59±0.03, 0.17±0.01, 1.15±0.05, and 0.53±0.06 mb, respectively. The ρ− production and decay angular distributions do not agree with the predictions of the absorption-modified one-pion-exchange model. However, an inclusion of the contribution from ω exchange adequately accounts for the discrepancy. The ρ0 asymmetry is interpreted as a result of an interference of the resonant P wave and isospin-zero S wave, and the corresponding spin-density matrix elements are obtained. In the final state π−p+neutrals, a clear peak for the η meson and some evidence for the ω meson are seen.
Interactions of 781-MeV π+ mesons with protons were investigated using the Brookhaven National Laboratory 14-in. hydrogen bubble chamber. A total of 2305 events was observed. The data were normalized to a total cross section of 22.2 mb, giving partial cross sections σ(π+p→π+p)=9.5±0.5 mb, σ(π+p→π+pπ0)=9.3±0.5 mb, σ(π+p→π+π+n)=2.15±0.17 mb, and a multiple-pion-production cross section of 1.15±0.17 mb. The elastic angular distribution was obtained and is dσdω=(0.25±0.03)+(0.90±0.11)cosθc.m.+(2.57±0.24)cos2θc.m.+(0.19±0.22)cos3θc.m.−(1.73±0.34)cos4c.m.. The kinetic-energy and angular distributions of the outgoing particles in single-pion production are given. The data are compared with other experiments in this energy region and their relevance to the shoulder in the π+p total cross section near 830 MeV is discussed.
A total of 24 360 events having two charged particles in the final state from π−+p interactions at an incident π− momentum of 2.7 GeVc have been analyzed. The final states π−π+n and π−π0p are found to be dominated by rho-meson production, and in addition, significant N*(1238) production is seen. The partial cross sections for the dominant resonant channels are σ=(pρ−)=(1.3±0.2) mb, σ(nρ0)=(2.3±0.2) mb, and σ[π−N*+(→pπ0)]=(0.5±0.2) mb. The production of the ρ− and ρ0 and the decay of the ρ− agree very well with the predictions of an absorption-modified one-pion-exchange model. The production angular distributions of the ρ0 and ρ− follow an exponential of the form Ae+Bt. The results from a least-squares fit give B(ρ−)=9.32±0.08 (GeVc)−2, B(ρ0)=10.26±0.06 (GeVc)−2. A similar analysis for the elastic-scattering events gave B(el)=7.77±0.05 (GeVc)−2. The ρ0 decay distributions are asymmetric and they have been analyzed using a simple model which includes S−P-wave interference. No clear evidence is seen for a T=0, J=0 resonance at a mass near that of the ρ. The N*(1238) resonance production is found to be in agreement with the ρ-exchange model of Stodolsky and Sakurai. Indication of other resonance production with small cross section is seen, such as A1 and A2 production in the multiple missing neutral events. The masses and widths of the ρ0 and ρ− as a function of the four-momentum transfer squared to the nucleon have been determined.
Interactions of 2.08−BeVc positive pions with protons have been studied using the 20-in. hydrogen bubble chamber and the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Using 3000 elastic and 8000 inelastic events, the partial cross sections for elastic scattering and for meson production have been measured. The ρ+, ρ0, ω0, and η0 resonances are produced strongly and emerge predominantly in the forward direction in the center-of-mass system, suggesting a peripheral mechanism for their production. The possibility of explaining these reactions by specific particle-exchange models is investigated. More than 75% of the ρ0, ω0, and η0 are produced with the N33* (1238) isobar. The N* (1688) is produced in about one-third of the π+π+N final states. Cross sections for production of ρ+p, π+pω, N33*ω, π+pη, N33*η, π+pρ0, N33*ρ0, N15*π+, and N33*π0, are given. A1, B, φ, and X mesons are not observed.
We present an analysis of ππN final states obtained from π−p interactions at 2.26 GeV/c. Strong ρ production is present in both final states. In addition, significant nucleon isobar production is observed. We observed the following cross sections: σ(π−π0p)=3.77±0.13 mb, σ(π−π+n)=5.67±0.17 mb, σ(ρ−p)=2.19±0.09 mb, σ(Δ+(1236)π−)=0.30±0.10 mb, σ(N0(1650)π0)=0.49±0.07 mb, σ(ρ0n)=2.89±0.11 mb, σ(Δ−(1236)π+)=0.11±0.06 mb, σ(N+(1470)π−)=0.24±0.06 mb, and σ(N+(1650)π−)=0.45±0.05 mb. The spin-density matrix elements are determined for the ρ0 by interpreting the ρ0 asymmetry as an interference between the resonant P wave and a T=0 S wave. A search for the ε0 in the π+π−n final state failed to yield a direct observation of this effect.
In an exposure of the Brookhaven National Laboratory 20-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a separated π+ beam at π+ momenta of 2.35 BeV/c (center-of-mass energy E*=2.30 BeV), 2.62 BeV/c (E*=2.41 BeV), and 2.90 BeV/c (E*=2.52 BeV), we have observed production of the ω0, ρ0, and η0 mesons. The production of the ω0, ρ0, and η0 is often accompanied by simultaneous production of the N*++. The momentum transfer in ω0 and ρ0 production is characteristic of peripheral collisions and suggests a single-particle exchange for the production mechanism. The decay distributions for the ω0, ρ0, and the ρ+ demonstrate the importance of modifying the single-particle-exchange model to include absorptive effects. An upper limit on the two-π decay of the ω0 is set at 2%. The width of the η0 is found to be less than 10 MeV. Elastic-scattering distributions are presented.
In an experiment on K--proton interactions in a hydrogen bubble chamber, the cross sections and angular distributions have been studied for elastic and charge-exchange scattering, and charged sigma hyperon production in the momentum range 90-300 MeV/c. Good agreement is found with previous cross sections except for the charge-exchange channel where the new values are 60% larger. The production distributions of the charged sigma hyperons and the polarisation of the Sigma + hyperon clearly indicate that P waves are present down to about 150 MeV/c, much lower than previously reported.
The results on total channel cross-sections obtained in the 2 m HBC exposed to a separated K− beam at the CERN PS are presented here. The total cross-sections for each channel are given at seven incident K− momenta between 1.934 and 2.516 GeV/c.
We present the results on total channel cross-sections obtained in the Saclay 180 l HBC exposed to a separated K− beam at Nimrod. The cross-sections for each channel are given at 13 incident K− momenta between 1.26 and 1.84 GeV/c.
Results are reported based on a study of π − p interactions at 147 GeV/ c in the FERMILAB 30-inch Proportional Wire Hybrid Bubble Chamber System. We have measured the topological cross sections and separated two-prong elastic and inelastic channels. In addition, we have extracted leading particle cross sections using the increased momentum resolution of the downstream proportional wire chambers. We have compared our results with experiments and predictions of a simple fragmentation hyphothesis.