We report final results on the polarization parameter P in elastic scattering of π − , K − and antiprotons at 40 GeV/ c incident momentum. The energy dependence of P (t) in π − p above 10 GeV/ c is well fitted by P (t) α s αR(t)-α P (t) where α R (t) are the effective Regge and Pomeron trajectories respectively. The data in K − p are compatible with exchange degeneracy. The results inp¯p show an important structure for |t|> 0.3 (GeV/c) 2 demonstrating the existence of a large helicity flip amplitude.
We have measured the elastic cross section for pp, p¯p, π+p, π−p, K+p, and K−p scattering at incident momenta of 70, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 GeV/c. The range of the four-momentum transfer squared t varied with the beam momentum from 0.0016≤−t≤0.36 (GeV/c)2 at 200 GeV/c to 0.0018≤−t≤0.0625 (GeV/c)2 at 70 GeV/c. The conventional parametrization of the t dependence of the nuclear amplitude by a simple exponential in t was found to be inadequate. An excellent fit to the data was obtained by a parametrization motivated by the additive quark model. Using this parametrization we determined the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear amplitude by the Coulomb-interference method.
The logarithmic slope of the differentical cross section for K ± p elastic scattering at 10 and 14 GeV, and for π ± p and p ± p at 10GeV has been measured. Rich structure is observed in the forward slope for all processes, which is well accounted for by the properties of a peripheral exchange amplitude for the nonexotic reactions, and by a peripheral component of the diffractive amplitude as clearly seen in the exotic processes, K ± p and pp.
GRAPH OF D(SIG)/DT.
SLOPE AS A FUNCTION OF T.
The polarization parameter P has been measured for elastic π + p, K + p and pp scattering at 45 GeV/c. Four-momentum transfer ranges from −0.08 to −1.1 (GeV/) 2 for pp, and from −0.08 to −0.9 (GeV/) 2 for π + p and K + p. The energy dependence of the polarization P ( t ) in π + p and in K + p above 6 GeV/c incident momentum is compatible with interference between pomeron and Regge poles. On the other hand, the polarization in p p elastic scattering decreases faster than ordinary Regge model predictions. This result can be explained by interference between non flip and flip amplitudes of the pomeron, leading to negative values for the polarization.
The polarization in π + p → π + p and K + p → K + p has been measured at 6 and 12 GeV/ c in the four-momentum transfer interval 0.1 ⩽ | t | ⩽ 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 by scattering on protons of a polarized deuteron target. Comparison with existing results obtained with polarized proton targets shows good general agreement and no evidence for asymmetry effects due to the presence of the spectator neutron. For K + p elastic scattering polarization the experiment yields improved statistics, especially at 6 GeV/ c
Data on 6.2 GeV/ c π − p and K − p elastic scattering cross sections are presented in the range 0.3 < − t < 10.7 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
The spin rotation sf R in pp and π + p elastic scattering at 45 GeV/c has been measured at the Seppukhov accelarator, for z . sfnc ; t |; ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 (GeV/) 2 . The results are presented, together with previous R measurements at lower energies. The equality of the values for R in proton-proton and pion-proton scattering, within the experimental errors, is a test of factorization of the residues in the pomeron exchange.
DATA FOR POSITIVE RAPIDITY OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN FINAL STATE.
An energy-independent phase-shift analysis ofπ+p-scattering has been carried out at 16 energies in the region 194–600 MeV. The new data on elastic polarization, obtained in LNPI up to 1983, were included.
INCLUDING DATA FROM PREVIOUS WORK OF THIS GROUP.
The differential cross section of π − p scattering has been measured in the energy region 100–345 GeV and in the t -range 0.002<| t |< 0.04 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The real part of the π − p scattering amplitude has been extracted from the data. The results show that the real part continues to increase with energy. The energy dependence of the slope parameter has also been determined. The shrinkage found expressed in terms of the slope of the pomeron trajectory is2 α ′ p =0.23±0.04 (GeV/ c ) −2 . This agrees with the energy dependence found at larger| t |-values.
RE(AMP)/IM(AMP) (REAL/IMAG) AND SLOPE PARAMETERS DEDUCED FROM A FIT TO D(SIG)/DT IN T HE COULOMB INTERFERENCE REGION (-T = 0.002 TO 0.04 GEV**2).
The differential cross section has been measured at 30, 50, 80, 100, 120 and 140 GeV/ c for 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 ( GeV / c ) 2 . The results show that the π − p real part goes from negative to positive values below 80 GeV/ c . The slope parameter in the t -region measured is significantly higher than what has been found − t = 0.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
FROM FIT TO D(SIG)/DT AND SIGMA TOTAL FOR -T = 0.002 TO 0.04 (0.02 AT 30 GEV/C AND 0.03 AT 140 GEV/C) GEV**2.
Measurements of the polarization parameters and angular distributions are reported for π±p elastic scattering at 100 GeV/c and for pp elastic scattering at 100- and 300-GeV/c incident momentum. The π±p data cover the kinematic range 0.18≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and are in agreement with current Regge-model predictions. The pp data cover the kinematic range 0.15≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and 0.15≤−t≤2.00 GeV2 at 100 and 300 GeV/c, respectively, and are found to be consistent with absorption-model predictions.
THESE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS AND POLARIZATION PARAMETERS ARE TABULATED IN THE RECORD OF THE EARLIER BRIEF REPORT OF THIS EXPERIMENT USING PION BEAMS: I. P. AUER ET AL., PRL 39, 313 (1977).
THESE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS AND POLARIZATION PARAMETERS ARE TABULATED IN THE RECORD OF THE EARLIER BRIEF REPORT OF THIS EXPERIMENT USING A PROTON BEAM: J. H. SNYDER ET AL., PRL 41, 781 (1978) AND PRL 41, 1256(E) (1978).
The polarization parameter in π±p elastic scattering has been measured at several momenta in the range 2.50-5.15 GeV/c pion laboratory momentum and covering the range in t approximately from -0.2 to -2.0(GeV/c)2. The data show positive polarization for π±p scattering, having a dip near t=−0.6 (GeV/c)2 and becoming relatively large at greater values of −t. The results for π+ and π− scattering are approximately equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. The data have been analyzed to separate the components, which are symmetric and antisymmetric with respect to pion charge, and to show both the t and s dependence of each part.
Results are presented of an investigation of the polarization of recoil protons appearing in elastic 1r+ -p scattering through an angle of 140 ± 8° in the c.m.s. at an energy of 307 ± 5 Mev. A polarization value P 1 = -0.19 ± 0.17 has been deriver from the data on the magnitude of the left-right asymmetry in elastic scattering of recoil protons on photographic emulsion nuclei. Phase shifts satisfying the indicated polarization value and consistent with the differential cross section for elastic scattering of 71"+ -mesons by protons are given by Eq. (1). Problems connected with the use of various phase shift sets for analysis of the experimental data are discussed.
The asymmetry in the scattering of π− mesons by polarized protons has been measured at 50 different momenta from 0.643 to 2.14 GeV/c. Results were obtained at values of cosθ ranging from approximately +0.9 to -0.95 in the c.m. system at each incident pion momentum. The pion beam was incident on a 7.6-cm-long crystal assembly of lanthanum magnesium nitrate, in which the hydrogen in the water of crystallization was polarized by the "solid effect." The total momentum spread of the beam was 10% (full width at half-height) and data were collected simultaneously in 4 momentum channels, each with 2½% full width at half-height. A gas Čherenkov counter was used to reject incoming electrons. Scattered particles were detected in scintillation counter arrays placed within the 10-cm gap of the polarized target magnet. Encoded information from each array was stored in the memory of a PDP-5 computer connected on-line to a fast electronic logic network. The computer was programmed to classify the events according to momentum and scattering angle and subdivide them into coplanar and noncoplanar categories. The latter provided a measure of the background. The results have been expressed in the form of an expansion in terms of first associated Legendre polynomial series and compared with the predictions of recent phase-shift solutions. It is concluded that although these analyses give satisfactory predictions of the general features of the results, no one solution gives complete agreement with the data above about 1.0 GeV/c.
Results on polarization in π − p and π + p forward elastic scattering at 10, 14 and 17.5 GeV/ c are presented.
The ITEP-PNPI collaboration presents the results of the measurements of the spin rotation parameter A in the elastic scattering of positive and negative pions on protons at P_beam = 1.62 GeV/c. The setup included a longitudinally-polarized proton target with superconductive magnet, multiwire spark chambers and a carbon polarimeter with thick filter. Results are compared to the predictions of partial wave analyses. The experiment was performed at the ITEP proton synchrotron, Moscow.
We have made measurements of polarization in π−p elastic scattering, with emphasis over the backward region, at 1.60 to 2.28 GeVc. The results indicate the absence of u-channel dominance in the backward region, as was observed in the case of π+p scattering. Comparisons have been made with predictions of various phase-shift analyses which show that the agreement is generally very poor in the backward region.
Angular distributions of recoil-proton polarization in elastic π±p scattering were measured at 864-, 981-, and 1301-MeV incident pion kinetic energy. Polarization measurements were made by observing the azimuthal asymmetry in the subsequent scattering of recoil protons in large carbon-plate spark chambers. The spark chambers proved to be very suitable polarization analyzer detectors. Strong variation of the polarization with backward pion scattering angle was observed.
Angular distributions of recoil-proton polarization in elastic π±p scattering were measured at 523-, 572-, and 689-MeV incident pion kinetic energy. Polarization measurements were made by observing the azimuthal asymmetry in the subsequent scattering of recoil protons in large carbon-plate spark chambers. Typical strong variation of the polarization with pion scattering angle near the πp diffraction minima was observed. Since existing opinion favors a D13 resonance at 600 MeV, a phase-shift analysis was attempted in order to confirm the existence and parity of this resonance. Available πp total and differential cross sections, these polarization data, and some possible restrictive assumptions related to the 600-MeV resonance were used in the analysis. Though the polarization results aided significantly in restricting the number of acceptable phase-shift sets, still, many plausible and qualitatively different sets were found.
This paper presents the results of a counter experiment at the Rutherford Laboratory, in which the polarization parameter in π + p elastic scattering was measured. Data were taken at 64 incident pion momenta between 0.60 and 2.65 GeV/ c . The results are found to be in generally good agreement with those of other experiments, and have substantially higher precision at many momenta.
The polarization parameter in π + p backward elastic scattering at 6 GeV/ c incident pion momentum has been measured using a butanol polarized proton target, a high intensity pion beam, and a scintillation hodoscope detection system. Details of the apparatus and data analysis are presented here, together with the final results.
The polarization parameter in π − p elastic scattering has been measured in the backward angular region at an incident momentum of 6 GeV/ c . The measurements cover the range of four momentum transfer u = 0 to −1 (GeV/ c ) 2 , and were obtained with a high intensity pion beam, a butanol polarized proton target, and arrays of scintillation counter hodoscopes. The polarization is different from zero, in contradiction to the prediction of the naive one trajectory Regge-exchange model. It increases positively with the four-momentum transfer u, reaching a maximum of about 0.4 at u ≈ −0.3 (GeV/c)2. It then decreases and becomes slightly negative beyond u ≈ −0.5 (GeV/c)2. A variety of baryon exchange models are briefly reviewed and none are found to be in complete agreement with all the experimental data.
Polarization in π − p elastic scattering, with emphasis over the backward region, has been measured at 2.93 and 3.25 GeV/ c . We observe large changes in polarization compared with existing data above and below these energies. Our data may be useful in determining the properties of resonances and in understanding baryon exchanges.
THESE DATA, TOGETHER WITH THE FORWARD SCATTERING POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS, ARE TABULATED IN THE RECORD OF P. AUER ET AL., PRL 37, 83 (1976).
We have measured the polarization parameter in π−p elastic scattering at laboratory momenta of 1180, 1250, and 1360 MeV/c in the angular interval 65°<θc.m.<115°. The results were used to show that the polarized target used in these (and other similar) experiments was uniformly polarized. These measurements were also used to resolve pre-existing experimental discrepancies in the determination of the polarization parameter, and to clarify the behavior of scattering amplitudes in this energy range. We show that local measurements of this type are important in resolving discrete ambiguities affecting the energy continuation of the amplitudes. An important by-product of this experiment is the development of a fast method of reconstructing particle trajectories and fitting the elastic events, which could have a significant impact for future high-statistics experiments.
The P parameter for π + p scattering at 236.3 MeV has been measured between 50° and 146° c.m. with very low background using a butanol polarized proton target. The resulting D phases are in fair agreement with dispersion relation values.
The polarization of the recoil proton in π+p and π−p elastic scattering using a liquid-hydrogen target has been measured for backward angles at 547 and 625 MeV/c. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the large-acceptance spectrometer to detect and analyze the momentum of the pions and the JANUS polarimeter to identify and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment agree with other measurements of the recoil polarization, with analyzing-power data previously taken by this group, and with predictions of partial-wave analyses.
Angular distributions of the analyzing powers for π+p→ and π−p→ elastic scattering have been measured in a single-scattering experiment employing a polarized proton target. Measurements were obtained for pion energies of 98, 139, 166, 215, and 263 MeV. The addition of these data to the existing πp database significantly reduces the uncertainties in all S and P phase shifts for πp reactions over the delta resonance.
Measured values of the analyzing power for PI+ P elastic scattering at incident kinetic energy 98 MeV.
Measured values of the analyzing power for PI+ P elastic scattering at incident kinetic energy 139 MeV.
Measured values of the analyzing power for PI+ P elastic scattering at incident kinetic energy 166 MeV.
We have measured the polarization for elastic scattering in the reaction π−p→π−p at 2.93 and 3.25 GeV/c using a polarized proton target and multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC's) with emphasis on large-angle scattering. Events were selected by fast scintillation-counter logic. Beam trajectories were measured with four MWPC's and the scattered-particle angles were measured with one or two MWPC's; elastic events were determined by coplanarity and angle-angle correlations. The polarization is in agreement with previous measurements below |t|=2.0 (GeV/c)2, and crosses from negative to positive near the secondary dip in the differential cross section dσdt. In the backward region, an energy dependence appears with the polarization being large and negative at 2.93 GeV/c and consistent with zero at 3.25 GeV/c.
The polarization parameter in elastic π−p scattering has been measured, at the Berkeley 184-in. synchrocyclotron, with the use of a polarized proton target. At 318-, 337-, and 390-MeV incident pion kinetic energy, the angular range from 70° to 180° in the center-of-mass system was covered. At 229 MeV, polarization measurements were made in the angular range 150° to 180°. Phase-shift analyses, using these and other published data, were made at the two lowest energies.
A graphite-plate spark chamber has been used to analyze the polarization of protons recoiling from π−−p scattering. The observations were made at 90° (c.m. system) pion scattering angle for seven incident pion energies between 500 and 940 Mev, at 120° or 135° for five energies in this interval, and also at 75° for 500 Mev only. The results are compared with predictions of several models used to explain the maxima in the π−−p scattering cross section. Qualitative arguments show that the energy intervals between these maxima are not completely dominated by neighboring single-state resonances. Phase shifts found to be large in scattering also seem to be large in polarization.
We report our first measurements of the polarization in the elastic scattering of negative pions from polarized protons at an incident pion momentum of 40 GeV/ c . The momentum-transfer region covered was 0.08 < | t | < 1.3 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The angular distribution of the polarization exhibits a first minimum of ∼ − 5% and the well-known zero around t ≈ − 0.6 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The energy variation of the first minimum (at around t = − 0.2) may be expressed in a simple form, P avr = −(0.48±0.06) s −0.52±0.05 .
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering were measured using the CHAOS spectrometer at energies spanning the Δ(1232) resonance. This work presents π+ data at the pion kinetic energies 117, 130, 139, 155, 169, 180, 193, 218, 241, and 267 MeV and π− data at 87, 117, 193, and 241 MeV, covering an angular range of 50°<~θc.m.<~180° at the higher energies and 90°<~θc.m.<~180° at the lower energies. Unique features of the spectrometer acceptance were employed to reduce systematic errors. Single-energy phase shift analyses indicate the resulting S11 and S31 phases favor the results of the SM95 phase shift analysis over that of the older KH80 analysis.
Measurement of the PI+ analysing power at 117 MeV.. The data were collected in the conventional mode and may be independently floated within the systematic error.
Measurement of the PI+ analysing power at 139 MeV.. The data were collected in the conventional mode and may be independently floated within the systematic error.
Measurement of the PI- analysing power at 87 MeV.. The data were collected in the conventional mode and may be independently floated within the systematic error.