We report final results on the polarization parameter P in elastic scattering of π − , K − and antiprotons at 40 GeV/ c incident momentum. The energy dependence of P (t) in π − p above 10 GeV/ c is well fitted by P (t) α s αR(t)-α P (t) where α R (t) are the effective Regge and Pomeron trajectories respectively. The data in K − p are compatible with exchange degeneracy. The results inp¯p show an important structure for |t|> 0.3 (GeV/c) 2 demonstrating the existence of a large helicity flip amplitude.
The polarization parameter P has been measured for elastic π + p, K + p and pp scattering at 45 GeV/c. Four-momentum transfer ranges from −0.08 to −1.1 (GeV/) 2 for pp, and from −0.08 to −0.9 (GeV/) 2 for π + p and K + p.
The spin rotation parameter R has been measured for elastic π − p scattering at 40 GeV/ c , at four momentum transfers t ranging from −0.19 to −0.52 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The average value within this interval is R π − p = -0.200± 0.023. The resulting constraints on the πN scattering amplitudes are discussed. The experiments also yields an average value for K − p scattering, R K − p scattering, R K − p = -0.16±0.16.
The polarization in π + p → π + p and K + p → K + p has been measured at 6 and 12 GeV/ c in the four-momentum transfer interval 0.1 ⩽ | t | ⩽ 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 by scattering on protons of a polarized deuteron target. Comparison with existing results obtained with polarized proton targets shows good general agreement and no evidence for asymmetry effects due to the presence of the spectator neutron. For K + p elastic scattering polarization the experiment yields improved statistics, especially at 6 GeV/ c
The spin rotation sf R in pp and π + p elastic scattering at 45 GeV/c has been measured at the Seppukhov accelarator, for z . sfnc ; t |; ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 (GeV/) 2 . The results are presented, together with previous R measurements at lower energies. The equality of the values for R in proton-proton and pion-proton scattering, within the experimental errors, is a test of factorization of the residues in the pomeron exchange.
Measurements of the polarization parameters and angular distributions are reported for π±p elastic scattering at 100 GeV/c and for pp elastic scattering at 100- and 300-GeV/c incident momentum. The π±p data cover the kinematic range 0.18≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and are in agreement with current Regge-model predictions. The pp data cover the kinematic range 0.15≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and 0.15≤−t≤2.00 GeV2 at 100 and 300 GeV/c, respectively, and are found to be consistent with absorption-model predictions.
The polarization parameter has been measured for K − p elastic scattering at nine incident beam momenta between 0.955 and 1.272 GeV/ c covering the c.m. angular range −0.9 < cos θ ∗ < + 0.9 . Experimental results and coefficients of Legendre polynomial fits to the data are presented and compared with other measurements and a partial-wave analysis.
The polarization parameter has been measured in K − p elastic scattering at eight incident beam momenta between 650 MeV/ c and 1071 MeV/ c throughout a center of mass angular range of −0.75 < cos θ ∗ < 0.85 . Experimental results and coefficients of Legendre polynomial fits to the data are presented and compared with other measurements and partial wave analysis.
Data on polarization in backward elastic π + p scattering at 2.0, 3.5 and 4.0 GeV/ c are presented. The data at 2.0 GeV/ c are compared with the result of a recent phase-shift analysis. Our data at 3.5 and 4.0 GeV/ c , and existing data above 3 GeV/ c , show no significant energy dependence of the polarization over the measured u -range. A comparison with Regge models and with results from amplitude analysis is made.
Polarization and differential cross-section data for elastic scattering of positive pions on protons between 0.82 and 2.74 GeV/ c are presented. A dip in the polarization, at constant u ≈ −0.65 GeV 2 , is observed. The data are compared with published phase-shift analyses.
Experimental results are presented for the polarization parameter P 0 in π ± p , K ± p , pp, and p ̄ p elastic scattering at 6 GeV/ c , and in the range of the invariant four-momentum transfer squared − t from 0.05 to ∼ 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
This paper presents the results of a counter experiment at the Rutherford Laboratory, in which the polarization parameter in π + p elastic scattering was measured. Data were taken at 64 incident pion momenta between 0.60 and 2.65 GeV/ c . The results are found to be in generally good agreement with those of other experiments, and have substantially higher precision at many momenta.
The polarization parameter in elastic proton-proton scattering has been measured at 0.75, 1.03, 1.32, 1.63, 2.24, and 2.84 GeV by employing a double-scattering technique. An external proton beam from the Brookhaven Cosmotron was focused on a 3 in.-long liquid-hydrogen target and the elastic recoil and scattered protons were detected in coincidence by scintillation counters. The polarization of the recoil beam was determined from the azimuthal asymmetry exhibited in its scattering from a carbon target. This asymmetry was measured by a pair of scintillation-counter telescopes which symmetrically viewed the carbon target. The analyzing power of this system was previously determined in an independent calibration experiment employing a 40%-polarized proton beam at the Carnegie Institute of Technology synchrocyclotron. False asymmetries were cancelled to a high order by periodically rotating the analyzer 180° about the recoil beam line. Spark chambers were utilized to obtain the spatial distribution of the beam as it entered the analyzer; this information allowed an accurate determination of the corrections necessary to compensate for any misalignment of the axis of the analyzer relative to the incident-beam centroid. Values of the polarization parameter as a function of the center-of-mass scattering angle are given for each incident beam energy. The predictions of the Regge theory for polarization in elastic proton-proton scattering and recently published phase-shift solutions are compared with the experimental results. Surprisingly good agreement with the Regge predictions is found despite the low energies involved.
The polarization of the recoil proton in π+p and π−p elastic scattering using a liquid-hydrogen target has been measured for backward angles at 547 and 625 MeV/c. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the large-acceptance spectrometer to detect and analyze the momentum of the pions and the JANUS polarimeter to identify and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment agree with other measurements of the recoil polarization, with analyzing-power data previously taken by this group, and with predictions of partial-wave analyses.
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering at bombarding energies below the Δ(1232) resonance were measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a polarized spin target. This work presents π− data at six incident energies of 57, 67, 87, 98, 117, and 139 MeV, and a single π+ data set at 139 MeV. The higher energy measurements cover an angular range of 72°<~θc.m.<~180° while the lower energies were limited to 101°<~θc.m.<~180°. There is a high degree of consistency between this work and the predictions of the VPI/GWU group’s SM95 partial wave analysis.
Analyzing powers for π−p elastic scattering have been measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a spin-polarized target. These data were collected at a bombarding energy of Tπ=279MeV and cover an angular range of 53<~θc.m.π<~180°. There is good agreement between these data and the latest partial wave analysis from the VPI/GWU group.
We report on the first measurement of the single spin analyzing power (A_N) at sqrt(s)=200GeV, obtained by the pp2pp experiment using polarized proton beams at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Data points were measured in the four momentum transfer t range 0.01 < |t| < 0.03 (GeV/c)^2. Our result, averaged over the whole t-interval is about one standard deviation above the calculation, which uses interference between electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude and hadronic non-flip amplitude, the source of A_N. The difference could be explained by an additional contribution of a hadronic spin-flip amplitude to A_N.
A graphite-plate spark chamber has been used to analyze the polarization of protons recoiling from π−−p scattering. The observations were made at 90° (c.m. system) pion scattering angle for seven incident pion energies between 500 and 940 Mev, at 120° or 135° for five energies in this interval, and also at 75° for 500 Mev only. The results are compared with predictions of several models used to explain the maxima in the π−−p scattering cross section. Qualitative arguments show that the energy intervals between these maxima are not completely dominated by neighboring single-state resonances. Phase shifts found to be large in scattering also seem to be large in polarization.
The polarization parameter in proton-proton scattering has been measured at incident proton kinetic energies of 1.7, 2.85, 3.5, 4.0, 5.05, and 6.15 BeV and for four-momentum transfer squared between 0.1 and 1.0 (BeV/c)2. The experiment was done with an unpolarized proton beam from the Bevatron striking a polarized proton target. Both final-state protons were detected in coincidence and the asymmetry in counting rate for target protons polarized parallel and antiparallel to the scattering normal was measured. The maximum polarization was observed to decrease from 0.4 at 1.7 BeV to 0.2 at 6.1 BeV. The maximum of the polarization at all energies studied occurs at a four-momentum transfer squared of 0.3 to 0.4 (BeV/c)2.
The ITEP-PNPI collaboration presents the first results of the spin rotation parameter A + measurements in the second resonance region. The experiment was performed at the ITEP accelerator at a positive pion beam momentum 1.43 GeV/c for scattering angles θ cm = 127° and 133°. The setup was based on a polarized proton target and a carbon-plate polarimeter. The obtained data is compared with the predictions of the existing partial-wave analyses.
The pp analyzing power was measured using the SATURNE II polarized proton beam and the Saclay frozen spin polarized target. The measurements at 0.88 and 1.1 GeV were carried out in the angular region θ CM from 28° to ≅50° and complete our previous measurements from 45 ° to 90°. Above 1.1 GeV the measurements presented here cover both regions, extending from θ CM = 28° (at the lower energies) or θ CM = 18° (at the higher energies) to θ CM > 90°. The shape of the angular distribution A oono ( pp ) = ƒ(θ CM ) changes considerably with increasing energy. The new data show the onset of a characteristic t -dependence of the analyzing power, with a minimum at − t ≅ 1.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 followed by a second maximum at − t ≅ 1.5 (GeV/ c ) 2 . This structure is present at all energies, from kinematic threshold to 200 GeV.
The polarization parameter in proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at an incident momentum of 7.9 GeV/ c and four-momentum transfers in the range 0.9 < | t | < 6.5 (GeV/ c ) 2 using a high intensity unpolarized proton beam incident on a polarized proton target. The angle and momentum of the forward scattered protons were measured with a magnet spectrometer and scintillation counter hodoscopes and the angle of the recoil proton was measured using similar hodoscopes. A clean separation between the elastic scattering from free hydrogen and that coming from inelastic interactions and from interactions with complex nuclei in the target was obtained. The polarization shows substantial structure rising from zero at | t | = 1.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 to a maximum at | t | = 1.7 (GeV/ c ) 2 and then falling to zero at | t | = 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 . There is evidence of a further peak at | t | = 2.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Above | t | = 3.25 (GeV/ c ) 2 the polarization is small and consistent with zero. A comparison of these data with data obtained at other beam momenta shows that the polarization parameter has a strong momentum dependence.