We report final results on the polarization parameter P in elastic scattering of π − , K − and antiprotons at 40 GeV/ c incident momentum. The energy dependence of P (t) in π − p above 10 GeV/ c is well fitted by P (t) α s αR(t)-α P (t) where α R (t) are the effective Regge and Pomeron trajectories respectively. The data in K − p are compatible with exchange degeneracy. The results inp¯p show an important structure for |t|> 0.3 (GeV/c) 2 demonstrating the existence of a large helicity flip amplitude.
The polarization parameter P has been measured for elastic π + p, K + p and pp scattering at 45 GeV/c. Four-momentum transfer ranges from −0.08 to −1.1 (GeV/) 2 for pp, and from −0.08 to −0.9 (GeV/) 2 for π + p and K + p.
The spin rotation parameter R has been measured for elastic π − p scattering at 40 GeV/ c , at four momentum transfers t ranging from −0.19 to −0.52 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The average value within this interval is R π − p = -0.200± 0.023. The resulting constraints on the πN scattering amplitudes are discussed. The experiments also yields an average value for K − p scattering, R K − p scattering, R K − p = -0.16±0.16.
The spin rotation sf R in pp and π + p elastic scattering at 45 GeV/c has been measured at the Seppukhov accelarator, for z . sfnc ; t |; ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 (GeV/) 2 . The results are presented, together with previous R measurements at lower energies. The equality of the values for R in proton-proton and pion-proton scattering, within the experimental errors, is a test of factorization of the residues in the pomeron exchange.
The polarization in π + p → π + p and K + p → K + p has been measured at 6 and 12 GeV/ c in the four-momentum transfer interval 0.1 ⩽ | t | ⩽ 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 by scattering on protons of a polarized deuteron target. Comparison with existing results obtained with polarized proton targets shows good general agreement and no evidence for asymmetry effects due to the presence of the spectator neutron. For K + p elastic scattering polarization the experiment yields improved statistics, especially at 6 GeV/ c
Measurements of the polarization parameters and angular distributions are reported for π±p elastic scattering at 100 GeV/c and for pp elastic scattering at 100- and 300-GeV/c incident momentum. The π±p data cover the kinematic range 0.18≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and are in agreement with current Regge-model predictions. The pp data cover the kinematic range 0.15≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and 0.15≤−t≤2.00 GeV2 at 100 and 300 GeV/c, respectively, and are found to be consistent with absorption-model predictions.
The polarization parameter has been measured in K − p elastic scattering at eight incident beam momenta between 650 MeV/ c and 1071 MeV/ c throughout a center of mass angular range of −0.75 < cos θ ∗ < 0.85 . Experimental results and coefficients of Legendre polynomial fits to the data are presented and compared with other measurements and partial wave analysis.
The polarization parameter has been measured for K − p elastic scattering at nine incident beam momenta between 0.955 and 1.272 GeV/ c covering the c.m. angular range −0.9 < cos θ ∗ < + 0.9 . Experimental results and coefficients of Legendre polynomial fits to the data are presented and compared with other measurements and a partial-wave analysis.
The polarization parameter in elastic proton-proton scattering has been measured at 0.75, 1.03, 1.32, 1.63, 2.24, and 2.84 GeV by employing a double-scattering technique. An external proton beam from the Brookhaven Cosmotron was focused on a 3 in.-long liquid-hydrogen target and the elastic recoil and scattered protons were detected in coincidence by scintillation counters. The polarization of the recoil beam was determined from the azimuthal asymmetry exhibited in its scattering from a carbon target. This asymmetry was measured by a pair of scintillation-counter telescopes which symmetrically viewed the carbon target. The analyzing power of this system was previously determined in an independent calibration experiment employing a 40%-polarized proton beam at the Carnegie Institute of Technology synchrocyclotron. False asymmetries were cancelled to a high order by periodically rotating the analyzer 180° about the recoil beam line. Spark chambers were utilized to obtain the spatial distribution of the beam as it entered the analyzer; this information allowed an accurate determination of the corrections necessary to compensate for any misalignment of the axis of the analyzer relative to the incident-beam centroid. Values of the polarization parameter as a function of the center-of-mass scattering angle are given for each incident beam energy. The predictions of the Regge theory for polarization in elastic proton-proton scattering and recently published phase-shift solutions are compared with the experimental results. Surprisingly good agreement with the Regge predictions is found despite the low energies involved.
Polarization and differential cross-section data for elastic scattering of positive pions on protons between 0.82 and 2.74 GeV/ c are presented. A dip in the polarization, at constant u ≈ −0.65 GeV 2 , is observed. The data are compared with published phase-shift analyses.
Experimental results are presented for the polarization parameter P 0 in π ± p , K ± p , pp, and p ̄ p elastic scattering at 6 GeV/ c , and in the range of the invariant four-momentum transfer squared − t from 0.05 to ∼ 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
This paper presents the results of a counter experiment at the Rutherford Laboratory, in which the polarization parameter in π + p elastic scattering was measured. Data were taken at 64 incident pion momenta between 0.60 and 2.65 GeV/ c . The results are found to be in generally good agreement with those of other experiments, and have substantially higher precision at many momenta.
Data on polarization in backward elastic π + p scattering at 2.0, 3.5 and 4.0 GeV/ c are presented. The data at 2.0 GeV/ c are compared with the result of a recent phase-shift analysis. Our data at 3.5 and 4.0 GeV/ c , and existing data above 3 GeV/ c , show no significant energy dependence of the polarization over the measured u -range. A comparison with Regge models and with results from amplitude analysis is made.
Analyzing powers of pion-proton elastic scattering have been measured at PSI with the Low Energy Pion Spectrometer LEPS as well as a novel polarized scintillator target. Angular distributions between 40 and 120 deg (c.m.) were taken at 45.2, 51.2, 57.2, 68.5, 77.2, and 87.2 MeV incoming pion kinetic energy for pi+ p scattering, and at 67.3 and 87.2 MeV for pi- p scattering. These new measurements constitute a substantial extension of the polarization data base at low energies. Predictions from phase shift analyses are compared with the experimental results, and deviations are observed at low energies.
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering at bombarding energies below the Δ(1232) resonance were measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a polarized spin target. This work presents π− data at six incident energies of 57, 67, 87, 98, 117, and 139 MeV, and a single π+ data set at 139 MeV. The higher energy measurements cover an angular range of 72°<~θc.m.<~180° while the lower energies were limited to 101°<~θc.m.<~180°. There is a high degree of consistency between this work and the predictions of the VPI/GWU group’s SM95 partial wave analysis.
Analyzing powers for π−p elastic scattering have been measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a spin-polarized target. These data were collected at a bombarding energy of Tπ=279MeV and cover an angular range of 53<~θc.m.π<~180°. There is good agreement between these data and the latest partial wave analysis from the VPI/GWU group.
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering were measured using the CHAOS spectrometer at energies spanning the Δ(1232) resonance. This work presents π+ data at the pion kinetic energies 117, 130, 139, 155, 169, 180, 193, 218, 241, and 267 MeV and π− data at 87, 117, 193, and 241 MeV, covering an angular range of 50°<~θc.m.<~180° at the higher energies and 90°<~θc.m.<~180° at the lower energies. Unique features of the spectrometer acceptance were employed to reduce systematic errors. Single-energy phase shift analyses indicate the resulting S11 and S31 phases favor the results of the SM95 phase shift analysis over that of the older KH80 analysis.
The analyzing power Ay for p+p elastic scattering at θlab=8.64°±0.07° (θcms=18.1°) and at a bombarding energy of 183.1±0.4 MeV has been determined to be Ay=0.2122±0.0017. The error includes statistics, systematic uncertainties, and the uncertainty in bombarding energy and angle. This measurement represents a calibration standard for polarized beams in this energy range. The absolute scale for the measurement has been obtained by comparison with p+C elastic scattering at the same energy at an angle where Ay is very nearly unity.
The angular dependence of the pp elastic scattering analyzing power was measured at SATURNE II with an unpolarized proton beam and the Saclay polarized proton target. The energy region in the vicinity of the accelerator depolarizing resonance Gγ = 6 at Tkin = 2.202 GeV was studied. Measurements were carried out at seven energies between 2.16 and 2.28 GeV from 17° to 55°CM. No significant anomaly was observed in the angular and energy dependence of the results presented, whereas the existing data sets differ in this energy range.
We have measured the polarization parameter for proton-proton elastic scattering at p0 = 6 GeV/c for |t|<0.5 (GeV/c)2 using the polarized proton beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron. These data, together with all previous measurements in this t region, are well fitted by the empirical relation P = (0.481±0.010)(−t)12exp(2.291±0.085)t.
We have measured the polarization parameter in π−p elastic scattering at laboratory momenta of 1180, 1250, and 1360 MeV/c in the angular interval 65°<θc.m.<115°. The results were used to show that the polarized target used in these (and other similar) experiments was uniformly polarized. These measurements were also used to resolve pre-existing experimental discrepancies in the determination of the polarization parameter, and to clarify the behavior of scattering amplitudes in this energy range. We show that local measurements of this type are important in resolving discrete ambiguities affecting the energy continuation of the amplitudes. An important by-product of this experiment is the development of a fast method of reconstructing particle trajectories and fitting the elastic events, which could have a significant impact for future high-statistics experiments.
Measurements of the pp spin correlation coefficients Axx, Ayy, and Axz and analyzing power Ay for pp elastic scattering at 197.8 MeV over the angular range 4.5°–17.5° have been carried out. The statistical accuracy is approximately ±0.01 for Amn and ±0.004 for Ay, while the corresponding scale factor uncertainties are 2.4% and 1.3%, respectively. The experiment makes use of a polarized hydrogen gas target internal to a proton storage ring (IUCF Cooler) and a circulating beam of polarized protons. The target polarization (Q=0.79) is switched in sign and in direction (x,y,z) every 2 s by reversing a weak guide field (about 0.3 mT). The forward-scattered protons are detected in two sets of wire chambers and a scintillator, while recoil protons are detected in coincidence with the forward protons by silicon strip detectors placed 5 cm from the proton beam. The background rate from scattering by the walls of the target cell is (0.2±0.2)% of the good event rate. Analysis methods and comparisons with pp potential models and pp partial wave analyses are described.