The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
In a 35 000-picture exposure of the 30-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a 300-GeV/c proton beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, 10054 interactions have been observed. The measured total cross section is $40.68 \pm 0.55$ mb, the elastic cross section is $7.89 \pm 0.52$ mb, and the average charged-particle multiplicity for inelastic events is $8.S0 \pm 0.12$.
QUOTED ERRORS INCLUDE EFFECTS OF CORRECTIONS.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured in the region 4.9<|t|<12.1 GeV2 at a beam momentum of 201 GeV/c. If the form exp(At) is fitted to the data, the exponent A gradually changes from 1.5 to 0.9 GeV−2 over our t range. The data are consistent with the form exp(−6.6p⊥). A comparison with intersecting storage ring results shows that in this kinematical region the slopes are about the same, but dσdt at fixed t is still dropping with energy.
7904 ELASTIC EVENTS.
1030 ELASTIC EVENTS.
Proton-proton elastic scattering at 400 GeV/c has been measured in the region 5.4<−t<14.4 GeV2 with no sign of a second dip or "break." If the data are fitted by exp(At), the slope A decreases from 1.5±0.1 to 0.7±0.2 GeV−2 over the range. At fixed t the 400-GeV/c cross sections are about 0.6 times those at 200 GeV/c in this t range. At fixed θc.m.=15°, dσdt∝s−n where n=9.7±0.3.
The ratio of π+p to pp elastic scattering is found to be smoothly varying over the range −t=0.03 to 0.4 GeV2. It is well fitted by a single exponential, indicating the forward behavior must be quite similar for the two reactions.
ACTUALLY THE DATA ARE THE EXPONENTIAL SLOPE OF THE RATIO OF D(SIG)/DT FOR THE TWO REACTIONS.
We have measured π+p, π−p, and pp elastic scattering at an incident-beam momentum of 200 GeV/c in the region of −t, four-momentum transfer squared, from 0.021 to 0.665 (GeV/c)2. The data allow an investigation of the t dependence of the logarithmic forward slope parameter b≡(ddt)(lndσdt). In addition to standard parametrization, we use functional forms suggested by the additive quark model to fit the measured dσdt distributions. Within the context of this model we estimate the size of the clothed quark in the pion and proton. Limits on the elastic-scattering amplitude derived from unitarity bounds are checked, and no violations are observed.
We have measured the differential cross section for pp and p̄p elastic scattering at √ s = 31, 53 and 62 GeV in the interval 0.05 < | t | < 0.85 GeV 2 at the CERN ISR using the Split Field Magnet detector. At 53 and 62 GeV, for 0.17 < | t | < 0.85 GeV 2 both pp and p̄p data show simple exponential behaviour in t ; at √ s = 31 GeV the data for 0.05 < | t | < 0.85 GeV 2 are consistent with a change in slope near | t | = 0.15 GeV 2 .
ERRORS CONTAIN BOTH STATISTICAL AND T-DEPENDENT SYSYEMATIC ERRORS.
LOCAL SLOPE PARAMETERS BASED ON QUADRATIC EXPONENTIAL FIT.
We have measured the differential cross section for p¯p and pp elastic scattering at s=53 GeV in the interval 0.5<|t|<4.0 (GeV/c)2 at the CERN intersecting storage rings using the split-field magnet detector. The shape of the differential cross section differs significantly between p¯p and pp scattering in the region 1.1<|t|<1.5 (GeV/c)2, with p¯p data showing a less pronounced dip structure than pp data.
We have measured π±p and pp elastic differential cross sections in the range |cosθc.m.|<0.35 for incident momenta from 2 to 9.7 GeV/c for π−p and pp and from 2 to 6.3 GeV/c for π+p. We find that the fixed-c.m.-angle πp differential cross sections cannot be described as simple functions of s. The data are compared to the energy and angular dependence predicted by the constituent model of Gunion, Brodsky, and Blankenbecler.
The polarization parameter in proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at an incident momentum of 7.9 GeV/ c and four-momentum transfers in the range 0.9 < | t | < 6.5 (GeV/ c ) 2 using a high intensity unpolarized proton beam incident on a polarized proton target. The angle and momentum of the forward scattered protons were measured with a magnet spectrometer and scintillation counter hodoscopes and the angle of the recoil proton was measured using similar hodoscopes. A clean separation between the elastic scattering from free hydrogen and that coming from inelastic interactions and from interactions with complex nuclei in the target was obtained. The polarization shows substantial structure rising from zero at | t | = 1.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 to a maximum at | t | = 1.7 (GeV/ c ) 2 and then falling to zero at | t | = 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 . There is evidence of a further peak at | t | = 2.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Above | t | = 3.25 (GeV/ c ) 2 the polarization is small and consistent with zero. A comparison of these data with data obtained at other beam momenta shows that the polarization parameter has a strong momentum dependence.