The real part of the proton proton elastic scattering amplitude has been determined from its interference with the Coulomb amplitude at total centre-of-mass energies up to 62 GeV. The observed steady increase of ϱ with energy indicates that the total proton proton cross section continues to increase well beyond this energy.
The Fermilab hybrid 30-in. bubble-chamber spectrometer was exposed to a tagged 147-GeV/c positive beam containing π+, K+, and p. A sample of 3003 K+p, 19410 pp, and 20745 π+p interactions is used to derive σn, 〈n〉, f2cc, and 〈nc〉D for each beam particle. These values are compared to values obtained at other, mostly lower, beam momenta. The overall dependence of 〈n〉 on Ea, the available center-of-mass energy, for these three reactions as well as π−p and pp interactions has been determined.
We have measured the differential cross section for small angle p−p scattering from 25 to 200 GeV incident energy and in the momentum transfer range 0.015<|t|<0.080 (GeVc)2. We find that the slope of the forward diffraction peak, b(s), increases with energy and can be fitted by the form b(s)=b0+2α′ lns, where b0=8.3±1.3 and α′=0.28±0.13 (GeVc)−2. Such dependence is compatible with the data existing both at higher and lower energies. We have also obtained the energy dependence of the p−p total cross section in the energy range from 48 to 196 GeV. Within our errors which are ± 1.1 mb the total cross section remains constant.
We discuss how the spatial intermittency of energy dissipation in 3D fully developed turbulence affects the small-scale statistics of passive scalars. We relate the passive-scalar behaviour to the diffusion properties of particle pairs in turbulent fluids. We thus find the intermittency correction to the -5/3 Obukhov-Corrsin law for the power spectrum of a passive scalar at wavenumber k where molecular diffusion and viscosity play a negligible role (inertial convective subrange). This correction is positive at difference with the negative correction to the -5/3 Kolmogorov law for the energy spectrum. We finally show that the structure functions of passive scalars have scaling exponents linear in the moment order, even in the framework of multifractal models.
Measurements are reported of the difference ΔσL between proton-proton total cross sections for parallel and antiparallel spin states and of the parameter CLL for proton-proton elastic scattering near 90°, for thirteen energies between 300 and 800 MeV. The ΔσL results agree well with previous ANL ZGS and SIN data, but disagree with recent results from TRIUMF. Attempts to understand the cause of the discrepancy have been unsuccessful, but possible sources are discussed. The ΔσL and CLL results have been used with other experimental data to extract quantities which depend only on spin-singlet, coupled spin-triplet, and spin-triplet partial waves. Structure is found in these quantities, which appears to be associated with the resonantlike D21 and F33 partial waves. Additional similar structure is also found, which may be due either to the P03 partial wave or the (P23,F23) partial-wave pair.
We have measured the difference between the pp total cross-sections for parallel and anti-parallel longitudinal spin states at beam momenta of 3 and 6 GeV/ c . These results, combined with our previous measurements, at lower momenta, are useful in clarifying a striking structure appearing at around 1.5 GeV/ c . We have also measured for the first time, the spin-spin correlation parameter C LL ( t ) in pp elastic scattering at 6 GeV/ c . We observe evidence for an exchange with A 1 -like quantum-numbers.
The small-angle elastic scattering for pp at s=23.5, 30.7, and 52.8 GeV and for p¯p at s=52.8 GeV are measured. The data are normalized on Coulomb scattering. Using the optical theorem and the best estimate of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude, ρ(pp¯)=0.1, we obtain σtot(p¯p)=44.1±2.9 mb for the total cross section and b(p¯p)=13.6±2.2 GeV−2 for the nuclear slope parameter. This supports the dispersion relation prediction that σtot(p¯p) will start to rise above Elab≈200 GeV.
Total cross sections have been measured for H, He, 6 Li, C, O and Pb targets for 1 GeV incident energy protons. From the differential elastic scattering data published elsewhere, we also obtain the total elastic scattering and reaction cross sections for H, He, C and O. When our data are combined with other measurements in the same energy region, it is found that the total and reaction cross sections can be fit by the formulae σ T = 47 A 0.82 and σ R = 42 A 0.67 mb. It is also observed that the total and reaction cross sections for negative pions on nuclei can also be fit with these same A -dependencies.
The pp total, elastic, and all the inelastic cross sections were measured at 11 momenta in the range 0.9–2.0 GeV/c. No clear structure was observed in their momentum dependences. The momentum dependence of the total cross section agrees quite well with the result of a phase-shift analysis by Arndt. Our measurement of the ppπ 0 and pnπ + cross sections served to normalize the earlier systematic but relative and extrapolated measurements of these cross sections over a narrower momentum range. Calculations by König and Kroll based on a pion exchange model including the effect of an I = 1 dibaryon did not fit the single-pion production cross sections.
We present preliminary results from a sample of ∼ 1200 events obtained from an exposure of the 30-in. Argonne National Laboratory—National Accelerator Laboratory liquid-hydrogen bubble chamber to 102-GeVc protons. The elastic and total inelastic cross sections are respectively 6.9 ± 1.0 and 32.8 ± 1.1 mb. The parameters of the multiplicity distribution for negative tracks are 〈n−〉=2.17±0.07, D−2=〈n−2〉−〈n−〉2=2.56±0.12, and f2−=D−2−〈n−〉=0.39±0.10.
In an exposure of the 30-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a 303−GeVc proton beam, 2245 interactions have been observed. The measured total cross section is 39.0±1.0 mb and the average charged particle multiplicity 〈nch〉=8.86±0.16.
The charged-particle multiplicity distribution in 205−GeVc proton-proton interactions is presented. In addition, the total diffractive contributions to each charged multiplicity are estimated assuming a factorizable Pomeron.
Measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering at angles around 6 mrad have been made at centre-of-mass energies of 23, 31, 45 and 53 GeV using the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The absolute scale of the cross-section was established by determination of the effective density of the colliding beans in their overlap region. Proton-proton total cross sections were deduced by extrapolation of the elastic differential cross-section to the forward direction and by application of the optical theorem. The results indicate that over the energy range studied the proton-proton total cross-section increases from about 39 to about 43 mb.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings in the four-momentum transfer range 0.001 ⩽… t …⩽ 0.015 GeV 2 at centre-of-mass energies of 23 and 31 GeV. The detection of Coulomb scattering and of its interference with nuclear scattering leads to the determination of the real part of the nuclear amplitude and of the total proton-proton cross section by the optical theorem.
About 3700 two-prong and 5600 four-prong events of 10-GeV/c pp interactions in the Saclay 81-cm hydrogen bubble chamber have been measured and analyzed. The reliability of the identification of the different final states has been checked using Monte Carlo-generated events. For the channels accessible to analysis, cross sections and invariant-mass distributions are given. The c.m. angular distributions and the mean values of the transverse momentum for all final-state particles are shown and discussed. Production of Δ++(1236) accounts for about 30% of the cross section σ(pp→pnπ+)=4.1±0.4 mb. About 50% of the cross section σ(pp→ppπ+π−)=2.4±0.2 mb can be accounted for by Δ++ production. Production of nucleon isobars at 1450, 1520, and 1730 MeV and their subsequent decay into pπ+π− are investigated. Their cross sections, t dependences, and branching ratios are determined, using a one-pion-exchange model (OPEM) for calculating the background distributions. The production of resonances decaying into pπ− at 1236, 1500, and 1690 MeV is seen, and cross sections are given. Resonance production in the ppπ+π−π0 and pnπ+π+π− reactions is studied using background curves calculated with a model based on simple parametrizations of the c.m. momentum distributions. The production of nucleon isobars accounts for nearly 100% of these reactions. For the reactions pp→ppω, ppη, and ppf0, the cross sections found are 0.16±0.03, 0.16±0.07, and 0.10±0.04 mb, respectively, corrected for unobserved decay modes. It is shown that most of the gross features of the pion-production reactions can be explained by the OPEM with the form factors of Ferrari and Selleri.
Small angle elastic scattering events have been observed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. Directions of both particles as well as the collision vertex are reconstructed with the help of four sets of spark chambers, two for each of the two arms. The elastic nature of the events is demonstrated by a collinearity requirement. We find values for the (diffraction) slope parameter in disagreement with the simple linear extrapolation of lower energy (Surpukov) data.
The angular and energy distributions of pions produced by 650-MeV protons and pion-nucleon correlations were studied using a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. The present investigation indicates that the experimental angular distributions of neutral and charged pions are consis- tent with the assumption of isotopic spin conservation. The contributions of rrN subsystem states with isospin T 11'N = 7' 2 and % are measured; the contribution of the latter is 72 ± 3%.
We measured the elastic scattering of αα at s = 126 GeV and of α p at s = 89 GeV . For αα , the differential cross section d σ /d t has a diffractive pattern minima at | t | = 0.10 and 0.38 GeV 2 . At small | t | = 0.05−0.07 GeV 2 , this cross section behaves like exp[(100 ± 10) t ]. Extrapolating a fit to the data to the optical point, we obtained for the total cross section α tot ( αα ) = 250 ± 50 mb and an integrated elastic cross section σ e1 ( αα ) = 45 ± mb. Another method of estimating σ tot ( αα ), based on measuring the interaction rate, yielded 295 ± 40 mb. For α p, d σ /d t has aminimum at | t | = 0.20 GeV 2 , and for 0.05 < | t | < 0.18 GeV 2 behaves like exp[(41 ± 2) t ]. Extrapolating this slope to | t | = 0, we found σ tot ( α p) = 130 ± 20 and σ e1 ( α p) = 20 ± 4mb. Results on pp elastic scattering at s = 63 GeV agree with previous ISR experiments.
This report is based on about 10 500 pp collision events produced in the 81-cm Saclay hydrogen bubble chamber at CERN. Cross-section values for the different identified final states and resonances are given. The isobars N*1238, N*1420, N*1518, N*1688, N*1920, and N*2360 were identified and their production cross-section values were found via a best-fit analysis of different invariant-mass histograms. About 70% of the isobars are connected with the quasi-two-body reactions pp→N*N and pp→N*N*. The reaction pp→nN*1238(pπ+) with a cross section of 3.25±0.16 mb was analyzed in terms of a peripheral absorption model, which was found to be in good agreement with the data. Various decay modes of the N*1518 and N*1688 isobars were observed and their branching ratios determined. The branching ratio of nπ+ to pπ+π− was found to be 0.77±0.45 for N*1518 and 0.67±0.40 for N*1688. The branching ratio of N*1238(pπ+)π− to pπ+π− of N*1688 was estimated to be 0.74±0.14. Pion production turned out to be mainly due to decay of isobars. Production of meson resonances turned out to be less important; the reaction pp→ppω0→ppπ+π−π0 was identified with a cross-section value of 0.11±0.02 mb. Finally, the production of neutral strange particles with a cross section of 0.45±0.04 mb is descussed. Strong formation of Y*1385 is observed.