We have measured the elastic cross section for pp, p¯p, π+p, π−p, K+p, and K−p scattering at incident momenta of 70, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 GeV/c. The range of the four-momentum transfer squared t varied with the beam momentum from 0.0016≤−t≤0.36 (GeV/c)2 at 200 GeV/c to 0.0018≤−t≤0.0625 (GeV/c)2 at 70 GeV/c. The conventional parametrization of the t dependence of the nuclear amplitude by a simple exponential in t was found to be inadequate. An excellent fit to the data was obtained by a parametrization motivated by the additive quark model. Using this parametrization we determined the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear amplitude by the Coulomb-interference method.
The logarithmic slope of the differentical cross section for K ± p elastic scattering at 10 and 14 GeV, and for π ± p and p ± p at 10GeV has been measured. Rich structure is observed in the forward slope for all processes, which is well accounted for by the properties of a peripheral exchange amplitude for the nonexotic reactions, and by a peripheral component of the diffractive amplitude as clearly seen in the exotic processes, K ± p and pp.
We report final results on the polarization parameter P in elastic scattering of π − , K − and antiprotons at 40 GeV/ c incident momentum. The energy dependence of P (t) in π − p above 10 GeV/ c is well fitted by P (t) α s αR(t)-α P (t) where α R (t) are the effective Regge and Pomeron trajectories respectively. The data in K − p are compatible with exchange degeneracy. The results inp¯p show an important structure for |t|> 0.3 (GeV/c) 2 demonstrating the existence of a large helicity flip amplitude.
Experimental results are presented for the polarization parameter P 0 in π ± p , K ± p , pp, and p ̄ p elastic scattering at 6 GeV/ c , and in the range of the invariant four-momentum transfer squared − t from 0.05 to ∼ 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
Differential cross sections have been measured at Fermilab with a focusing spectrometer for π±p, K±p, and p±p elastic scattering at 50-, 70-, 100-, 140-, and 175-GeV/c incident momentum over the |t| range 0.03 to 0.8 GeV2. The results are smooth in t and are parametrized by quadratic exponential fits.
Results on polarization in K − p, K + p and p̄p forward elastic scattering at 10 and 14 GeV/ c are presented.
The differential cross sections for elastic π − p, K − p , p p and π + p, pp scattering at 39 and 44.5 GeV/ c , respectively, have been measured in the interval of momentum transfer squared 0.15 ≤ ovbt | ≤ 2 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
We present preliminary results on the measurement of a variety of exclusive hadron interactions at center of mass scattering angles of 90°. Data are also presented which show the relative transparency of nuclei to πp and pp elastic scattering in this kinematic range.
Differential cross sections for π±p, K±p, pp, and p¯p elastic scattering were measured at 3, 3.65, 5, and 6 GeVc for momentum transfers from 0.03 to 1.5 GeV2 using the Argonne effective mass spectrometer. Particular attention was paid to the relative particle-antiparticle normalization. The crossover points are consistent with no energy dependence, average values being 0.14 ± 0.03, 1.190 ± 0.005, and 0.160 ± 0.007 GeV2 for π's, K's, and protons, respectively.
Results are presented from experiment WA7 at the CERN SPS, which has measured the elastic differential cross sections of π ± p, K ± p, p p and pp at incident momen ta of 20, 30 and 50 GeV/ c . The measurements cover the momentum transfer range 0.5 < | t | < 8 (GeV/ c ) 2 , corresponding to c.m. scattering angles between 10° and 50°. The experimental set-up, trigger logic and data analysis are described. The experimental results are compared with existing meson-proton and nucleon-proton data at lower and higher energies covering the medium- and large-| t | region. Some prominent models and their predictions for elastic scattering at WA7 energies and beyond are reviewed, with emphasis on geometrical scaling, factorizing eikonal models, lowest-order QCD and other dynamical exchange-type models. Results for p p two-body annihilation into π − π + and K − K + at 30 and 50 GeV/ c , obtained in parallel with the elastic p p data, are also presented.
The differential cross section for π±, K±, and p± on hydrogen have been measured in the range 0.07<−t<1.6 (GeV/c)2. The dependence on momentum, momentum, transfer, and particle type are discussed.
Elastic scattering of hadrons on protons has been measured at momenta of 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c. The meson-proton scattering is found to be independent of momentum and meson type for −t>0.8 (GeV/c)2. The momentum dependence of the pp dip at −t=1.4 (GeV/c)2 was investigated. Slope parameters are given.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
Results are presented on π±p, K±p, and p±p elastic scattering measured with an apparatus having acceptance of 0.5<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2 and 0.9<−t<11 (GeV/c)2 at 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. A diffractionlike dip is seen for the first time in the π−p t distribution at −t=4 (GeV/c)2. All meson-proton cross sections are found to be similar in the range 1<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2, although some small systematic differences are observed. Cross sections for pp and p―p are compared with previous data.
We report on a measurement of elastic differential cross sections for p±p, π±p, and K±p at 100 and 200 GeV/c in the range 0.03<|t|<0.10 (GeV/c)2. Our data display a simple exponential dependence which is consistent with other measurements in this t region or with extrapolations from higher t.
Differential cross sections in the t -range between 0.02 and 1.5 GeV 2 have been measured for the elastic scattering of particles and antiparticles on protons at 6.4, 10.4 and 14 GeV for K ± p and 10.4 GeV for π ± p and p ± p . Large statistics have been achieved and systematic uncertainties have been minimized. The relative systematic uncertainty between particle and antiparticle data is less than 0.5%. Accurate measurements of the position of the first crossover between particle and antiparticle differential cross sections have been performed. As the energy increases from 6.4 to 14 GeV the K ± p crossover moves to smaller values by 0.010 GeV 2 with a statistical error of 0.006 GeV 2 and a systematic uncertainty of 0.005 GeV 2 . The crossover positions at 10.4 GeV for π ± , K ± and p ± scale approximately with the interaction radii.
Cross sections or upper limits are reported for 12 meson-baryon and two baryon-baryon reactions for an incident momentum of 9.9 GeV/c, near 90° c.m.: π±p→pπ±,pp±,π+°±,K+Σ±, (Λ0/Σ0)K0; K±p→pK±; p±p→pp. By studying the flavor dependence of the different reactions, we have been able to isolate the quark-interchange mechanism as dominant over gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation.
Measurements of π±p, K±p, pp, and p¯p elastic scattering are presented for incident momenta of 3, 3.65, 5, and 6 GeVc and momentum transfers typically 0.03 to 1.8 GeV2. The angle and momentum of the scattered particle were measured with the Argonne Effective Mass Spectrometer for 300 000 events, yielding 930 cross-section values with an uncertainty in absolute normalization of ±4%. Only the K+ and proton data show any significant change in slope of the forward diffraction peak with incident momentum. The particle-antiparticle crossover positions are consistent with no energy dependence, average values being 0.14 ± 0.03, 0.190 ± 0.006, and 0.162 ± 0.004 GeV2 for π' s, K' s, and protons, respectively; these errors reflect both statistics and the ±1.5% uncertainty in particle-antiparticle relative normalization. Differences between particle and antiparticle cross sections isolate interference terms between amplitudes of opposite C parity in the t channel; these differences indicate that the imaginary part of the odd-C nonflip-helicity amplitude has a J0(r(−t)12) structure for −t<0.8 GeV2, as predicted by strong absorption models. The cross-section differences for K± and proton-antiproton are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of ω universality, the agreement improving with increasing energy. The corresponding quark-model predictions relating the π± and K± differences failed by more than a factor of 2. We have combined our π± cross sections with other data to better determine the πN amplitudes in a model-independent way; results of this analysis are presented.
A description is given of an experiment to study elastic scattering of π ± , K ± and p on protons at c.m. scattering angles from 45° to 100° at incident laboratory momenta 20 GeV/ c and 30 GeV/ c . The corresponding t range is from −6.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 to −28 (GeV/ c ) 2 . There are no previous observations for these reactions in this t range. High intensity and large geometrical acceptance were required in order to measure the low cross sections. The experiment used a double-arm spectrometer. MWPCs were used for reconstruction, and threshold and differential Čerenkov counters for identification. Scintillation counters, Čerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter were used in the trigger. The trigger logic utilized specially designed matrices and a hard wired microprocessor. The π − p elastic scattering cross sections follow approximately the dimensional counting rule from 3.5 GeV/ c .and up to 30 GeV/ c . The cross sections decrease by seven orders of magnitude in this energy range. The data is compared to quark models. None of these models give a comprehensive description of the results. However, some modifications to these models improve their consistency with the data.
We present results of measurements of K ± p and p p elastic scattering and of the annihilation reactions p p →π + π − and p p → K + K − at an incident laboratory momentum of 5 GeV/ c . Nearly complete angular distributions were obtained. Results are also presented for π -meson proton elastic scattering in the momentum transfer ranges 2 < − t < 8 (GeV/ c ) 2 (for π + ) and 0.16 < − t < 7 (GeV/ c ) 2 (for π − ). All measurements were done in one experimental geometry. The measured differential cross sections range from 10 to 10 −5 mb/(GeV/ c ) 2 .
A comparison of K±p and p±p elastic scattering is made for incident energy 50 to 175 GeV. Average values of 0.19±0.04 and 0.11±0.02 GeV2 were found for the invariant-momentum-transfer values of the Kp and pp crossover points, respectively.
In a single-arm spectrometer experiment, high-precision measurements of dσdt for π−p, K−p, and p¯p elastic scattering have been made at 8 and 16 GeV/c. The π−p data show rich structure at 8 GeV/c, indicative of strong non-Pomeron contributions, while the 16-GeV/c data are much smoother. For −t≳1 (GeV/c)2 there is a strong s dependence while there is very little for −t<1 (GeV/c)2. For p¯p scattering the forward region is smoothly diffractive for −t<0.4 (GeV/c)2 and shows antishrinkage. The exponential slope parameter b is measured to be 12.36 ± 0.04 (GeV/c)−2 at 8 GeV/c and 11.40 ± 0.04 (GeV/c)−2 at 16 GeV/c. The structure near −t=0.6 (GeV/c)2 seen at lower energies is still obvious at 16 GeV/c. The K−p data show some structure at 8 GeV/c, but can be represented adequately by a quadratic exponential form. At 16 GeV/c the K−p angular distribution shows antishrinkage and lies above the 8-GeV/c cross section for 0.11<−t<0.8 (GeV/c)2.
Elastic diffraction scattering of π − , K − and p on protons has been measured at 25 and 40 GeV/c at the Serpukhov Proton Accelerator. Differential elastic cross sections and diffraction slopes are presented in the momentum-transfer interval 0.07–0.80 (GeV/ c ) 2 and compared with existing data at lower energies.
We report a study of 20 exclusive reactions measured at the AGS at 5.9 GeV/c incident momentum, 90° center of mass. This experiment confirms the strong quark flow dependence of two-body hadron-hadron scattering at large angle. At 9.9 GeV/c an upper limit had been set for the ratio of cross sections for (p¯p→p¯p)(pp→pp) at 90° c.m., with the ratio less than 4%. The present experiment was performed at lower energy to gain sensitivity, but was still within the fixed angle scaling region. A ratio R(p¯ppp)≈140 was measured at 5.9 GeV/c, 90° c.m. in comparison to a ratio near 1.7 for small angle scattering. In addition, many other reactions were measured, often for the first time at 90° c.m. in the scaling region, using beams of π±, K±, p, and p¯ on a hydrogen target. There are similar large differences in cross sections for other reactions: R(K−p→π+Σ−K−p→π−Σ+)≈112, for example. The relative magnitudes of the different cross sections are consistent with the dominance of quark interchange in these 90° reactions, and indicate that pure gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams are much less important. The angular dependence of several elastic cross sections and the energy dependence at a fixed angle of many of the reactions are also presented.