An energy-independent phase-shift analysis ofπ+p-scattering has been carried out at 16 energies in the region 194–600 MeV. The new data on elastic polarization, obtained in LNPI up to 1983, were included.
The ITEP-PNPI collaboration presents the first results of the spin rotation parameter A + measurements in the second resonance region. The experiment was performed at the ITEP accelerator at a positive pion beam momentum 1.43 GeV/c for scattering angles θ cm = 127° and 133°. The setup was based on a polarized proton target and a carbon-plate polarimeter. The obtained data is compared with the predictions of the existing partial-wave analyses.
The ITEP-PNPI collaboration presents the results of the measurements of the spin rotation parameter A in the elastic scattering of positive and negative pions on protons at P_beam = 1.62 GeV/c. The setup included a longitudinally-polarized proton target with superconductive magnet, multiwire spark chambers and a carbon polarimeter with thick filter. Results are compared to the predictions of partial wave analyses. The experiment was performed at the ITEP proton synchrotron, Moscow.
We present preliminary results on the measurement of a variety of exclusive hadron interactions at center of mass scattering angles of 90°. Data are also presented which show the relative transparency of nuclei to πp and pp elastic scattering in this kinematic range.
Cross sections or upper limits are reported for 12 meson-baryon and two baryon-baryon reactions for an incident momentum of 9.9 GeV/c, near 90° c.m.: π±p→pπ±,pp±,π+°±,K+Σ±, (Λ0/Σ0)K0; K±p→pK±; p±p→pp. By studying the flavor dependence of the different reactions, we have been able to isolate the quark-interchange mechanism as dominant over gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation.
Differential cross sections for elastic π±−p scattering have been measured at lab momenta of 8 and 12 GeV/c in a momentum-transfer region corresponding to 1.2≤−t≤6 (GeV/c)2. Also, differential cross sections near 180° were measured for 4 and 8 GeV/c pions. At momentum transfers greater than −t=2 (GeV/c)2, the π−p cross sections drop much faster with increasing angle than the corresponding p−p cross sections. Also, in the region −t≃1.3 (GeV/c)2, there is structure in the π−p angular distribution but not in the p−p angular distribution. At −t≃3 (GeV/c)2, the drop in cross section appears to stop and from then on the angular distribution is consistent with isotropy. But in the angular region 170° to 180°, the cross sections have become much larger, and sharp backward peaks are observed. Information is given on the energy and charge dependences and widths of these backward peaks.
Backward elastic scattering has been measured for π + p at 2.85 and 3.30 GeV/ c and for π − p at 3.30 GeV/ c . The π + p angular distributions show steep backward peaks, whereas the π − p distribution is flatter. At 2.85 GeV/ c the π + p differential cross section close to 180° is more than twice that at 3.30 GeV/ c , supporting the assignment J P = 11 2 + for Δ δ (2420) resonance. The π + p data at 2.85 GeV/ c indicate the onset of a dip at cos θ c.m. ≈ −0.97.
Absolute π±p elastic scattering differential cross sections have been measured at five incident pion energies between 87 and 139 MeV. An active target of scintillator material (CH1.1) was used to detect recoil protons in coincidence with scattered pions. Pions were detected at forward angles between 27 and 98°c.m. where the low-energy recoil protons stop in the target. The cross sections, typically 5–10% lower than phase shift predictions for π+p and 10–20% lower for the π−p cross sections, are consistent with earlier measurements by this group.
The elastic scattering of 3.55 GeV/ c π + and π − mesons by protons was measured at centre-of-mass angles between 165° and 177°. The angular distributions for 864 events show a steeply rising backward peak for π + p, while the shape is less clear for π − p.
We present results of measurements of K ± p and p p elastic scattering and of the annihilation reactions p p →π + π − and p p → K + K − at an incident laboratory momentum of 5 GeV/ c . Nearly complete angular distributions were obtained. Results are also presented for π -meson proton elastic scattering in the momentum transfer ranges 2 < − t < 8 (GeV/ c ) 2 (for π + ) and 0.16 < − t < 7 (GeV/ c ) 2 (for π − ). All measurements were done in one experimental geometry. The measured differential cross sections range from 10 to 10 −5 mb/(GeV/ c ) 2 .
New high-statistics measurements of π + p elastic scattering differential cross sections are presented at 30 momentum points between 1.282 and 2.472 GeV/ c , covering most of the angular distribution outside the forward diffractive peak. These data show significant disagreements at some momenta with previous high-statistics experiments and with current partial wave analyses.
The differential cross-section for 5 GeV/ cπ + p and π − p elastic scattering have been measured in the c.m. angular region 27° < θ cm < 130° corresponding to 0.5 < | t | < 7.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Dips are observed in both reactions at − t = 2.8 and 4.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 where the cross-sections are approximately 0.1 μ b/(GeV/ c ) 2 .
Interactions of 2.08−BeVc positive pions with protons have been studied using the 20-in. hydrogen bubble chamber and the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Using 3000 elastic and 8000 inelastic events, the partial cross sections for elastic scattering and for meson production have been measured. The ρ+, ρ0, ω0, and η0 resonances are produced strongly and emerge predominantly in the forward direction in the center-of-mass system, suggesting a peripheral mechanism for their production. The possibility of explaining these reactions by specific particle-exchange models is investigated. More than 75% of the ρ0, ω0, and η0 are produced with the N33* (1238) isobar. The N* (1688) is produced in about one-third of the π+π+N final states. Cross sections for production of ρ+p, π+pω, N33*ω, π+pη, N33*η, π+pρ0, N33*ρ0, N15*π+, and N33*π0, are given. A1, B, φ, and X mesons are not observed.
In an exposure of the Brookhaven National Laboratory 20-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a separated π+ beam at π+ momenta of 2.35 BeV/c (center-of-mass energy E*=2.30 BeV), 2.62 BeV/c (E*=2.41 BeV), and 2.90 BeV/c (E*=2.52 BeV), we have observed production of the ω0, ρ0, and η0 mesons. The production of the ω0, ρ0, and η0 is often accompanied by simultaneous production of the N*++. The momentum transfer in ω0 and ρ0 production is characteristic of peripheral collisions and suggests a single-particle exchange for the production mechanism. The decay distributions for the ω0, ρ0, and the ρ+ demonstrate the importance of modifying the single-particle-exchange model to include absorptive effects. An upper limit on the two-π decay of the ω0 is set at 2%. The width of the η0 is found to be less than 10 MeV. Elastic-scattering distributions are presented.
We have measured differential cross sections for both π+p and π−p elastic scattering at incident-pion kinetic energies of 30, 50, 70, and 90 MeV in the center-of-mass angular range between 50° and 150°. The experiment detected pions scattered from a liquid-hydrogen target with multiwire proportional chambers and scintillation-counter range telescopes. The relative accuracy of each angular distribution is better than 5%, while the absolute cross sections have uncertainties of 4% to 25%. Our results for the absolute cross section for π+p scattering at 30 and 90 MeV are inconsistent with previous measurements. Our π−p measurements comprise the first extensive set of precision differential cross sections below 90 MeV.
Interactions of 781-MeV π+ mesons with protons were investigated using the Brookhaven National Laboratory 14-in. hydrogen bubble chamber. A total of 2305 events was observed. The data were normalized to a total cross section of 22.2 mb, giving partial cross sections σ(π+p→π+p)=9.5±0.5 mb, σ(π+p→π+pπ0)=9.3±0.5 mb, σ(π+p→π+π+n)=2.15±0.17 mb, and a multiple-pion-production cross section of 1.15±0.17 mb. The elastic angular distribution was obtained and is dσdω=(0.25±0.03)+(0.90±0.11)cosθc.m.+(2.57±0.24)cos2θc.m.+(0.19±0.22)cos3θc.m.−(1.73±0.34)cos4c.m.. The kinetic-energy and angular distributions of the outgoing particles in single-pion production are given. The data are compared with other experiments in this energy region and their relevance to the shoulder in the π+p total cross section near 830 MeV is discussed.
The Fermilab hybrid 30-in. bubble-chamber spectrometer was exposed to a tagged 147-GeV/c positive beam containing π+, K+, and p. A sample of 3003 K+p, 19410 pp, and 20745 π+p interactions is used to derive σn, 〈n〉, f2cc, and 〈nc〉D for each beam particle. These values are compared to values obtained at other, mostly lower, beam momenta. The overall dependence of 〈n〉 on Ea, the available center-of-mass energy, for these three reactions as well as π−p and pp interactions has been determined.
Approximately 60 000 events have been collected in a spark chamber experiment at the CERN Proton Synchrotron which studied elastic diffraction scattering of π--p and p-p at incident momenta of 8.5, 12.4 and 18.4 GeV/c and of π+-p at 8.5 and 12.4 GeV/c. Magnetic analysis of the incoming and diffraction scattered particle, together with measurement of all angles, permitted each event to be determined as elastic subject to three constraints, so that the inelastic background was rejected with. high efficiency, even at the larger momentum, transfers. Much of the data have been processed by the CERN Automatic Flying-Spot DigitizerHPD. A detailed description of the experimental technique and of the methods of analysis is given. The results, together with data from lower energies, confirm the remarkable energy-independence of the shape of the pion-proton diffraction scattering peak up to |t| = 1.5 (GeV/c)2, wheret is the square of the four-momentum transfer, over a range of pion energies from 2 to 18 GeV. Proton-proton scattering does however appear to show a shrinking diffraction peak. In general, the data agree with other experiments using both counter and bubble chamber techniques, but some differences do appear. During the experiment, data were taken which set an upper limit of 2·102 μb/(GeV/c)2 on the differential elastic cross-section dσ/dt over a range of |t| from 20.9 to 23.4 (GeV/c)2 at 13.4 GeV/c incident pion momentum.
The elastic scattering of 3.6 GeV/ c π + mesons by protons has been studied in a hydrogen bubble chamber experiment. The elastic cross section has a measured value of 7.07 ± 0.20 mb. The forward diffraction peak has been fitted in the region 0.05 ≦ − t ≦ 0.6 (GeV/ c ) 2 by a form (d σ /d t ) = Ae Bt , where A = 46.5 ± 1.8 mb/(GeV/ c ) 2 and B = 6.85 ± 0.20 (GeV/ c ) −2 . From this fit and the optical theorem, the magnitude of the ratio of real to imaginary forward amplitude is 0.39 ± 0.06, in reasonable agreement with dispersion relation calculations and simple Regge model predictions.
A beam of ∼200-Mev π+ mesons was defined inside the vacuum chamber of the Nevis Cyclotron. Nuclear emulsions were exposed to a flux of about 104 mesons/cm2. The plates were scanned for pion-hydrogen scatterings and 103 such events were observed in two interaction energies, 151±7 Mev and 188±8 Mev. We obtain total cross sections of 152±31 and 159±34×10−27 cm2, respectively. The data suggest that the angular distribution changes from backwards peaked to almost symmetric over this energy interval. Our observations are not in agreement with the hypothesis of a P32-wave resonance in this energy region. The best fit to the combined results includes a D-wave contribution of -5.4°, although satisfactory agreement may be obtained with only S and P waves.
The differential cross section for π + p elastic scattering at 895, 945, 995 and 1040 MeV/ c has been measured in a hydrogen bubble chamber. The results are in good agreement with previous measurements using counter techniques except at extreme backward angles where significantly lower cross sections are obtained.