The ITEP-PNPI collaboration presents the results of the measurements of the spin rotation parameter A in the elastic scattering of positive and negative pions on protons at P_beam = 1.62 GeV/c. The setup included a longitudinally-polarized proton target with superconductive magnet, multiwire spark chambers and a carbon polarimeter with thick filter. Results are compared to the predictions of partial wave analyses. The experiment was performed at the ITEP proton synchrotron, Moscow.
Results of systematic measurements of the asymmetry parameter in the elastic scattering of pions on polarized protons at 1.4–2.1 GeV/ c in the backward hemisphere are presented together with a test of the isospin invariance of the data set available on pion-proton scattering in the investigated momentum range. The transversity isodoublet amplitudes at 1.98 and 2.07 GeV/ c are reconstructed. The obtained data, the isospin analysis and amplitude reconstruction results are compared with the current phase-shift analysis predictions.
The polarization of the recoil proton at this energy depends on the interference of the P 33 phase shift with the P 11 and S 11 phase shifts. The measured values indicate the existence of a large P 11 phase shift. The polarization was measured by scattering from carbon blocks in spark chambers using a Vidicon scanner to record the data.
We present preliminary results on the measurement of a variety of exclusive hadron interactions at center of mass scattering angles of 90°. Data are also presented which show the relative transparency of nuclei to πp and pp elastic scattering in this kinematic range.
Cross sections or upper limits are reported for 12 meson-baryon and two baryon-baryon reactions for an incident momentum of 9.9 GeV/c, near 90° c.m.: π±p→pπ±,pp±,π+°±,K+Σ±, (Λ0/Σ0)K0; K±p→pK±; p±p→pp. By studying the flavor dependence of the different reactions, we have been able to isolate the quark-interchange mechanism as dominant over gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation.
Differential cross sections for elastic π±−p scattering have been measured at lab momenta of 8 and 12 GeV/c in a momentum-transfer region corresponding to 1.2≤−t≤6 (GeV/c)2. Also, differential cross sections near 180° were measured for 4 and 8 GeV/c pions. At momentum transfers greater than −t=2 (GeV/c)2, the π−p cross sections drop much faster with increasing angle than the corresponding p−p cross sections. Also, in the region −t≃1.3 (GeV/c)2, there is structure in the π−p angular distribution but not in the p−p angular distribution. At −t≃3 (GeV/c)2, the drop in cross section appears to stop and from then on the angular distribution is consistent with isotropy. But in the angular region 170° to 180°, the cross sections have become much larger, and sharp backward peaks are observed. Information is given on the energy and charge dependences and widths of these backward peaks.
Backward elastic scattering has been measured for π + p at 2.85 and 3.30 GeV/ c and for π − p at 3.30 GeV/ c . The π + p angular distributions show steep backward peaks, whereas the π − p distribution is flatter. At 2.85 GeV/ c the π + p differential cross section close to 180° is more than twice that at 3.30 GeV/ c , supporting the assignment J P = 11 2 + for Δ δ (2420) resonance. The π + p data at 2.85 GeV/ c indicate the onset of a dip at cos θ c.m. ≈ −0.97.
Absolute π±p elastic scattering differential cross sections have been measured at five incident pion energies between 87 and 139 MeV. An active target of scintillator material (CH1.1) was used to detect recoil protons in coincidence with scattered pions. Pions were detected at forward angles between 27 and 98°c.m. where the low-energy recoil protons stop in the target. The cross sections, typically 5–10% lower than phase shift predictions for π+p and 10–20% lower for the π−p cross sections, are consistent with earlier measurements by this group.
The elastic scattering of 3.55 GeV/ c π + and π − mesons by protons was measured at centre-of-mass angles between 165° and 177°. The angular distributions for 864 events show a steeply rising backward peak for π + p, while the shape is less clear for π − p.
The differential cross section for elastic scattering of 3.63−GeVc π− mesons on protons was studied with a hydrogen bubble chamber, the emphasis being on large-angle scattering. From 90 to 180° in the barycentric system, the cross section is roughly flat with an average value of 2.7±1.0 μb/sr. Near and at 180°, there may be a slight peak of magnitude 10±6 μb/sr. But if such a peak exists, it is only one-third to one-fourth the size of the 180° peak found in 4.0 GeVc π++p elastic scattering. In addition to comparison with other π−+p and π++p large-angle elastic-scattering measurements, this measurement is compared with large-angle p+p elastic scattering. In the forward hemisphere a small peak or a plateau exists at cos θ*=+0.60. This appears to be a second diffraction maximum such as has been found in lower-energy π+p elastic scattering. A survey of indications of such a second diffraction maximum in other π+p measurements shows that it always occurs in the vicinity of −t=1.2 (GeVc)2, where t is the square of the four-momentum transfer. As the incident momentum increases, the relative size of this second maximum decreases.
We present results of measurements of K ± p and p p elastic scattering and of the annihilation reactions p p →π + π − and p p → K + K − at an incident laboratory momentum of 5 GeV/ c . Nearly complete angular distributions were obtained. Results are also presented for π -meson proton elastic scattering in the momentum transfer ranges 2 < − t < 8 (GeV/ c ) 2 (for π + ) and 0.16 < − t < 7 (GeV/ c ) 2 (for π − ). All measurements were done in one experimental geometry. The measured differential cross sections range from 10 to 10 −5 mb/(GeV/ c ) 2 .
The differential cross-section for 5 GeV/ cπ + p and π − p elastic scattering have been measured in the c.m. angular region 27° < θ cm < 130° corresponding to 0.5 < | t | < 7.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Dips are observed in both reactions at − t = 2.8 and 4.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 where the cross-sections are approximately 0.1 μ b/(GeV/ c ) 2 .
A total of 24 360 events having two charged particles in the final state from π−+p interactions at an incident π− momentum of 2.7 GeVc have been analyzed. The final states π−π+n and π−π0p are found to be dominated by rho-meson production, and in addition, significant N*(1238) production is seen. The partial cross sections for the dominant resonant channels are σ=(pρ−)=(1.3±0.2) mb, σ(nρ0)=(2.3±0.2) mb, and σ[π−N*+(→pπ0)]=(0.5±0.2) mb. The production of the ρ− and ρ0 and the decay of the ρ− agree very well with the predictions of an absorption-modified one-pion-exchange model. The production angular distributions of the ρ0 and ρ− follow an exponential of the form Ae+Bt. The results from a least-squares fit give B(ρ−)=9.32±0.08 (GeVc)−2, B(ρ0)=10.26±0.06 (GeVc)−2. A similar analysis for the elastic-scattering events gave B(el)=7.77±0.05 (GeVc)−2. The ρ0 decay distributions are asymmetric and they have been analyzed using a simple model which includes S−P-wave interference. No clear evidence is seen for a T=0, J=0 resonance at a mass near that of the ρ. The N*(1238) resonance production is found to be in agreement with the ρ-exchange model of Stodolsky and Sakurai. Indication of other resonance production with small cross section is seen, such as A1 and A2 production in the multiple missing neutral events. The masses and widths of the ρ0 and ρ− as a function of the four-momentum transfer squared to the nucleon have been determined.
We have measured differential cross sections for both π+p and π−p elastic scattering at incident-pion kinetic energies of 30, 50, 70, and 90 MeV in the center-of-mass angular range between 50° and 150°. The experiment detected pions scattered from a liquid-hydrogen target with multiwire proportional chambers and scintillation-counter range telescopes. The relative accuracy of each angular distribution is better than 5%, while the absolute cross sections have uncertainties of 4% to 25%. Our results for the absolute cross section for π+p scattering at 30 and 90 MeV are inconsistent with previous measurements. Our π−p measurements comprise the first extensive set of precision differential cross sections below 90 MeV.
An analysis of π−p two-prong interactions at 4.16 GeV/c is presented. The total two-prong cross section is 19.11±0.40 mb, based on 33 672 events. The elastic-scattering differential cross section shows an exponential behavior, Kexp(−AΔ2). With A=7.36±0.14 GeV−2, the "absorption parameters" are derived as C+=0.846±0.017 and γ+=0.040±0.001. The final-state π−π0p exhibits a strong ρ−, and the π−π+n a strong ρ0 and f0. The partial cross sections for the dominant resonant channels pρ−, π−Δ+(1236) (→pπ0), ρ0n, and f0n are 0.59±0.03, 0.17±0.01, 1.15±0.05, and 0.53±0.06 mb, respectively. The ρ− production and decay angular distributions do not agree with the predictions of the absorption-modified one-pion-exchange model. However, an inclusion of the contribution from ω exchange adequately accounts for the discrepancy. The ρ0 asymmetry is interpreted as a result of an interference of the resonant P wave and isospin-zero S wave, and the corresponding spin-density matrix elements are obtained. In the final state π−p+neutrals, a clear peak for the η meson and some evidence for the ω meson are seen.
Meson production in π−p and π+n interactions at 1.7 GeV/c has been studied in two bubble-chamber exposures. Combined results are presented with emphasis on single-pion production (4300 events) which is dominated by the formation of the ρ0 meson in peripheral interactions, and on double-pion production (1100 events) which shows strong formation of the ω meson. These data are compared with the predictions of particle-exchange models, including absorption, and the effects of competing channels are discussed. Evidence for a two-pion decay mode of the ω is examined quantitatively. Processes with higher meson multiplicities are described.
Single-pion production has been studied in the reactions π−p→π−π+n and π−p→π−π0p at 790, 830, and 870 MeV. A total of 4193 events in these two channels, divided approximately equally between the three energies, have been identified. The most interesting feature of the data is the tendency for events to concentrate at high values of mππ and low values of four-momentum transfer. These effects are discussed in terms of conventional isobar models and a model involving two-pion exchange. Partial cross sections for the reactions studied are reported for each energy.
A total of 1589 two-prong events were observed in an exposure of the Brookhaven National Laboratory 14-in. bubble chamber at the Cosmotron. The fit to the elastic angular distribution requires terms through cos4θc.m.. The ratio of the inelastic cross sections σ(π−p→π−π+n)σ(π−p→π−π0p) is 3.75±0.46. The π−p→π−π+n reaction is dominated by formation of the π−n isobar and an enhancement in the di-pion mass spectrum previously reported by Kirz. The π−p→π−π0p reaction shows no structure in the effective-mass spectra.