We have measured the elastic cross section for pp, p¯p, π+p, π−p, K+p, and K−p scattering at incident momenta of 70, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 GeV/c. The range of the four-momentum transfer squared t varied with the beam momentum from 0.0016≤−t≤0.36 (GeV/c)2 at 200 GeV/c to 0.0018≤−t≤0.0625 (GeV/c)2 at 70 GeV/c. The conventional parametrization of the t dependence of the nuclear amplitude by a simple exponential in t was found to be inadequate. An excellent fit to the data was obtained by a parametrization motivated by the additive quark model. Using this parametrization we determined the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear amplitude by the Coulomb-interference method.
The polarization parameter P has been measured for elastic π + p, K + p and pp scattering at 45 GeV/c. Four-momentum transfer ranges from −0.08 to −1.1 (GeV/) 2 for pp, and from −0.08 to −0.9 (GeV/) 2 for π + p and K + p.
The polarization in π + p → π + p and K + p → K + p has been measured at 6 and 12 GeV/ c in the four-momentum transfer interval 0.1 ⩽ | t | ⩽ 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 by scattering on protons of a polarized deuteron target. Comparison with existing results obtained with polarized proton targets shows good general agreement and no evidence for asymmetry effects due to the presence of the spectator neutron. For K + p elastic scattering polarization the experiment yields improved statistics, especially at 6 GeV/ c
Data on 6.2 GeV/ c π − p and K − p elastic scattering cross sections are presented in the range 0.3 < − t < 10.7 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
The spin rotation sf R in pp and π + p elastic scattering at 45 GeV/c has been measured at the Seppukhov accelarator, for z . sfnc ; t |; ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 (GeV/) 2 . The results are presented, together with previous R measurements at lower energies. The equality of the values for R in proton-proton and pion-proton scattering, within the experimental errors, is a test of factorization of the residues in the pomeron exchange.
Measurements of the polarization parameters and angular distributions are reported for π±p elastic scattering at 100 GeV/c and for pp elastic scattering at 100- and 300-GeV/c incident momentum. The π±p data cover the kinematic range 0.18≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and are in agreement with current Regge-model predictions. The pp data cover the kinematic range 0.15≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and 0.15≤−t≤2.00 GeV2 at 100 and 300 GeV/c, respectively, and are found to be consistent with absorption-model predictions.
The angular distributions of the reactions K - p → K - p and K - p → K K 0 n have been measured at 23 incident K - momenta between 1.136 and 1.798 ifGeV/c using the bubble chamber technique. These data, together with other published data on the same reactions, including K - p polarisations, K̄N total cross sections, and measurements of Re ƒ(0)/ Im ƒ(0) , have been analysed in terms of partial-wave amplitudes. Resonance behaviour is confirmed for the P 03 partial wave at 1890 MeV. The resonance parameters of the F 15 (1915), F 17 (2030) and G 07 (2100) have been redetermined. No evidence has been found for new resonances coupling significantly to K K N in the energy region explored.
The polarization parameter has been measured for K − p elastic scattering at nine incident beam momenta between 0.955 and 1.272 GeV/ c covering the c.m. angular range −0.9 < cos θ ∗ < + 0.9 . Experimental results and coefficients of Legendre polynomial fits to the data are presented and compared with other measurements and a partial-wave analysis.
A direct experimental reconstruction of the five complex pp elastic-scattering amplitudes has been performed at 447, 497, 517, 539, and 579 MeV. The reconstruction is done over the c.m. angles from 38° to 90° and is based on either 11 or 15 spin observables depending on the angular range. The reconstructed amplitudes are presented and compared to phase-shift analysis. A smooth energy behavior is observed for the amplitudes.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured over the angular range 7 to 16 mrad at centre-of-mass energies of 31, 45 and 53 GeV using the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The results indicate that the diffraction peak has continued to shrink with increasing energy, but not as fast as suggested by the results at lower energies.
This work extends our previous investigations at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings, with improved statistics at three different energies, wider angular range and a better control over systematic errors. Values for the (diffraction) shape parameter b are given.
We have investigated the above processes at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). Results show a marked change of the slope parameter b ( t , s ) = (d/d t ) ln (d σ /d t ) around − t ≈ 0.10 GeV 2 . The s − and t − dependence of b ( t , s ) have been observed over the interval 460 GeV 2 < s < 2900 GeV 2 and 0.02 GeV 2 < t < 0.40 GeV 2 .
The differential cross section of π − p scattering has been measured in the energy region 100–345 GeV and in the t -range 0.002<| t |< 0.04 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The real part of the π − p scattering amplitude has been extracted from the data. The results show that the real part continues to increase with energy. The energy dependence of the slope parameter has also been determined. The shrinkage found expressed in terms of the slope of the pomeron trajectory is2 α ′ p =0.23±0.04 (GeV/ c ) −2 . This agrees with the energy dependence found at larger| t |-values.
The differential cross section of pp scattering has been measured in the energy region 100–300 GeV and in the t -range 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 (GeV/| c ) 2 . The results on the real part of the scattering amplitude agrees with dispersion relation calculations. We also report on our determination of the slope parameter b together with an analysis of the world data of b for different hadrons and different t -values. It is shown that the data are consistent with the hypothesis of a universal shrinkage of the hadronic diffraction cone at high energies.
The differential cross section has been measured at 30, 50, 80, 100, 120 and 140 GeV/ c for 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 ( GeV / c ) 2 . The results show that the π − p real part goes from negative to positive values below 80 GeV/ c . The slope parameter in the t -region measured is significantly higher than what has been found − t = 0.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
Differential cross-sections for pp elastic scattering in the transfer momentum range 2 x 10 −3 ⩽ | t | ⩽ x 8 10 −3 (GeV/ c ) 2 were studied with a hydrogen filled ionization chamber which was used as a target and as a detector of the recoiled protons. The measurements have been done at P lab . = 1.11 GeV/ c , 1.28 GeV/ c , 1.34 GeV/ c , 1.40 GeV/ c and 1.70 GeV/ c . The real part of the spin independent forward scattering amplitude has been determined, the results being in agreement with the dispersion relation calculations.
The measurements of the differential cross section of elastic p-p scattering in relative units were performed in the energy range of 12–70 GeV. The values of the slope parameter were obtained from this data. It was shown that the slope parameter of the differential p-p scattering is monotonously increasing when the proton energy rises in the range 12–70 GeV. We have obtained the slope Pomeranchuk's pole trajectory from this data: α′ p = 0.40 ± 0.09.
The results presented in this paper were obtained from a 105 000 frame exposure of the FNAL Hybrid Proportional Wire Chamber-30 inch Bubble Chamber System, in a tagged beam of 147 GeV/ c negative particles. Elastic, total and topological cross sections were obtained for both π − p and K − p interactions. Comparisons with other data, taken with various beam particles over large momentum intervals, show good agreement with KNO scaling, and similarity in the scaling behavior of σ n for the different beam particles.
We present results of measurements of the differential cross sections for the following elastic-scattering reactions: (i) π + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0.02 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (ii) π − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −0.7 < u < 0.05 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (iii) K + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the ranges −1 < t < −0.01 (GeV/ c ) 2 and −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 , and K − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
The differential cross sections for π + p elastic scattering at0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, GeV/ c for π - p at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 GeV/ c , for K - p at 1.2, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/ c and for K - p at 0.9, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/ c have been measured with an overall accuracy ofthe order of 1 to 2% in an electronics experiment over the angular region corresponding to momentum transfer t between 0.0005 and 0.10 GeV 2 . Making use of the interference effects between the Coulomb and the nuclear interaction, we have determined the magnitude and sign of the real part of the scattering amplitude near t = 0. The K ± p real parts have been used in a dispersion relation to derive the value of the KNΛ coupling constant.
Data are presented on elastic πp and Kp scattering for values of −t up to 2.5 and 3.5 (GeV/c)2 at incident momenta of 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. All of the cross sections are found to be nearly identical, although there is some momentum dependence of the π+p data; a small systematic difference observed between pion and kaon data cannot be explained by geometrical scaling.