A direct experimental reconstruction of the five complex pp elastic-scattering amplitudes has been performed at 447, 497, 517, 539, and 579 MeV. The reconstruction is done over the c.m. angles from 38° to 90° and is based on either 11 or 15 spin observables depending on the angular range. The reconstructed amplitudes are presented and compared to phase-shift analysis. A smooth energy behavior is observed for the amplitudes.
The spin correlation parameter A00NN for 497.5 MeV proton + proton elastic scattering was determined over the center-of-momentum scattering angle region 23.1°–64.9 °. The new A00NN extend to more forward angles than existing A00NN and have significantly smaller statistical errors (±0.01–0.04). The A00NN are qualitatively described by recent phase shift analyses, but a quantitative shape and normalization discrepancy remains in the forward angle region. These new data provide important constraints for nucleon-nucleon spin-dependent amplitudes at forward angles which are used in theoretical models of nucleon-nucleus scattering.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured over the angular range 7 to 16 mrad at centre-of-mass energies of 31, 45 and 53 GeV using the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The results indicate that the diffraction peak has continued to shrink with increasing energy, but not as fast as suggested by the results at lower energies.
This work extends our previous investigations at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings, with improved statistics at three different energies, wider angular range and a better control over systematic errors. Values for the (diffraction) shape parameter b are given.
We have investigated the above processes at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). Results show a marked change of the slope parameter b ( t , s ) = (d/d t ) ln (d σ /d t ) around − t ≈ 0.10 GeV 2 . The s − and t − dependence of b ( t , s ) have been observed over the interval 460 GeV 2 < s < 2900 GeV 2 and 0.02 GeV 2 < t < 0.40 GeV 2 .
The differential cross section of π − p scattering has been measured in the energy region 100–345 GeV and in the t -range 0.002<| t |< 0.04 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The real part of the π − p scattering amplitude has been extracted from the data. The results show that the real part continues to increase with energy. The energy dependence of the slope parameter has also been determined. The shrinkage found expressed in terms of the slope of the pomeron trajectory is2 α ′ p =0.23±0.04 (GeV/ c ) −2 . This agrees with the energy dependence found at larger| t |-values.
The differential cross section of pp scattering has been measured in the energy region 100–300 GeV and in the t -range 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 (GeV/| c ) 2 . The results on the real part of the scattering amplitude agrees with dispersion relation calculations. We also report on our determination of the slope parameter b together with an analysis of the world data of b for different hadrons and different t -values. It is shown that the data are consistent with the hypothesis of a universal shrinkage of the hadronic diffraction cone at high energies.
The differential cross section has been measured at 30, 50, 80, 100, 120 and 140 GeV/ c for 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 ( GeV / c ) 2 . The results show that the π − p real part goes from negative to positive values below 80 GeV/ c . The slope parameter in the t -region measured is significantly higher than what has been found − t = 0.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
Differential cross-sections for pp elastic scattering in the transfer momentum range 2 x 10 −3 ⩽ | t | ⩽ x 8 10 −3 (GeV/ c ) 2 were studied with a hydrogen filled ionization chamber which was used as a target and as a detector of the recoiled protons. The measurements have been done at P lab . = 1.11 GeV/ c , 1.28 GeV/ c , 1.34 GeV/ c , 1.40 GeV/ c and 1.70 GeV/ c . The real part of the spin independent forward scattering amplitude has been determined, the results being in agreement with the dispersion relation calculations.
The polarization parameter has been measured in K − p elastic scattering at eight incident beam momenta between 650 MeV/ c and 1071 MeV/ c throughout a center of mass angular range of −0.75 < cos θ ∗ < 0.85 . Experimental results and coefficients of Legendre polynomial fits to the data are presented and compared with other measurements and partial wave analysis.
The measurements of the differential cross section of elastic p-p scattering in relative units were performed in the energy range of 12–70 GeV. The values of the slope parameter were obtained from this data. It was shown that the slope parameter of the differential p-p scattering is monotonously increasing when the proton energy rises in the range 12–70 GeV. We have obtained the slope Pomeranchuk's pole trajectory from this data: α′ p = 0.40 ± 0.09.
The results presented in this paper were obtained from a 105 000 frame exposure of the FNAL Hybrid Proportional Wire Chamber-30 inch Bubble Chamber System, in a tagged beam of 147 GeV/ c negative particles. Elastic, total and topological cross sections were obtained for both π − p and K − p interactions. Comparisons with other data, taken with various beam particles over large momentum intervals, show good agreement with KNO scaling, and similarity in the scaling behavior of σ n for the different beam particles.
The differential cross section for π+p elastic scattering has been measured at 13.8 GeVc for 0.7<|t|<3.8(GeVc)2. The cross section is found to be equal to that previously obtained for π−p elastic scattering, except in the region |t|=2.8 (GeVc)2, where the π+p data do not show the prominent dip observed in π−p scattering. Data have also been obtained for 13.8−GeVc K+p elastic scattering for 0.8<|t|<2.2 (GeVc)2.
We present results of measurements of the differential cross sections for the following elastic-scattering reactions: (i) π + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0.02 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (ii) π − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −0.7 < u < 0.05 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (iii) K + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the ranges −1 < t < −0.01 (GeV/ c ) 2 and −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 , and K − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
The differential cross sections for π + p elastic scattering at0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, GeV/ c for π - p at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 GeV/ c , for K - p at 1.2, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/ c and for K - p at 0.9, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/ c have been measured with an overall accuracy ofthe order of 1 to 2% in an electronics experiment over the angular region corresponding to momentum transfer t between 0.0005 and 0.10 GeV 2 . Making use of the interference effects between the Coulomb and the nuclear interaction, we have determined the magnitude and sign of the real part of the scattering amplitude near t = 0. The K ± p real parts have been used in a dispersion relation to derive the value of the KNΛ coupling constant.
Data are presented on elastic πp and Kp scattering for values of −t up to 2.5 and 3.5 (GeV/c)2 at incident momenta of 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. All of the cross sections are found to be nearly identical, although there is some momentum dependence of the π+p data; a small systematic difference observed between pion and kaon data cannot be explained by geometrical scaling.
The angular distributions of K + p and π + p backward elastic scattering have been measured at 5.2 and 6.9 GeV/ c . Backward π - p and K - p elastic scattering were studied at 6.9 GeV/ c . Backward peaks are observed in K + p scattering with an energy dependence of the form s −4 .
Data on polarization in backward elastic π + p scattering at 2.0, 3.5 and 4.0 GeV/ c are presented. The data at 2.0 GeV/ c are compared with the result of a recent phase-shift analysis. Our data at 3.5 and 4.0 GeV/ c , and existing data above 3 GeV/ c , show no significant energy dependence of the polarization over the measured u -range. A comparison with Regge models and with results from amplitude analysis is made.
Polarization and differential cross-section data for elastic scattering of positive pions on protons between 0.82 and 2.74 GeV/ c are presented. A dip in the polarization, at constant u ≈ −0.65 GeV 2 , is observed. The data are compared with published phase-shift analyses.
Experimental results are presented for the polarization parameter P 0 in π ± p , K ± p , pp, and p ̄ p elastic scattering at 6 GeV/ c , and in the range of the invariant four-momentum transfer squared − t from 0.05 to ∼ 2.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
This paper presents the results of a counter experiment at the Rutherford Laboratory, in which the polarization parameter in π + p elastic scattering was measured. Data were taken at 64 incident pion momenta between 0.60 and 2.65 GeV/ c . The results are found to be in generally good agreement with those of other experiments, and have substantially higher precision at many momenta.
The polarization parameter in elastic proton-proton scattering has been measured at 0.75, 1.03, 1.32, 1.63, 2.24, and 2.84 GeV by employing a double-scattering technique. An external proton beam from the Brookhaven Cosmotron was focused on a 3 in.-long liquid-hydrogen target and the elastic recoil and scattered protons were detected in coincidence by scintillation counters. The polarization of the recoil beam was determined from the azimuthal asymmetry exhibited in its scattering from a carbon target. This asymmetry was measured by a pair of scintillation-counter telescopes which symmetrically viewed the carbon target. The analyzing power of this system was previously determined in an independent calibration experiment employing a 40%-polarized proton beam at the Carnegie Institute of Technology synchrocyclotron. False asymmetries were cancelled to a high order by periodically rotating the analyzer 180° about the recoil beam line. Spark chambers were utilized to obtain the spatial distribution of the beam as it entered the analyzer; this information allowed an accurate determination of the corrections necessary to compensate for any misalignment of the axis of the analyzer relative to the incident-beam centroid. Values of the polarization parameter as a function of the center-of-mass scattering angle are given for each incident beam energy. The predictions of the Regge theory for polarization in elastic proton-proton scattering and recently published phase-shift solutions are compared with the experimental results. Surprisingly good agreement with the Regge predictions is found despite the low energies involved.