We report on a measurement of elastic differential cross sections for p±p, π±p, and K±p at 100 and 200 GeV/c in the range 0.03<|t|<0.10 (GeV/c)2. Our data display a simple exponential dependence which is consistent with other measurements in this t region or with extrapolations from higher t.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
The differential cross sections for K − p and p p elastic scattering have been measured over the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.18<− t <3.3 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The K − p data decrease smoothly as a function of − t , whereas, the p p data shows a break at − t = 0.6 (GeV/ c ) 2 followed by a fast drop to − t ≅ 1.6 (GeV/ c ) 2 where the differential cross section levels off and stays constant out to − t = 3 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
In a single-arm spectrometer experiment, high-precision measurements of dσdt for π−p, K−p, and p¯p elastic scattering have been made at 8 and 16 GeV/c. The π−p data show rich structure at 8 GeV/c, indicative of strong non-Pomeron contributions, while the 16-GeV/c data are much smoother. For −t≳1 (GeV/c)2 there is a strong s dependence while there is very little for −t<1 (GeV/c)2. For p¯p scattering the forward region is smoothly diffractive for −t<0.4 (GeV/c)2 and shows antishrinkage. The exponential slope parameter b is measured to be 12.36 ± 0.04 (GeV/c)−2 at 8 GeV/c and 11.40 ± 0.04 (GeV/c)−2 at 16 GeV/c. The structure near −t=0.6 (GeV/c)2 seen at lower energies is still obvious at 16 GeV/c. The K−p data show some structure at 8 GeV/c, but can be represented adequately by a quadratic exponential form. At 16 GeV/c the K−p angular distribution shows antishrinkage and lies above the 8-GeV/c cross section for 0.11<−t<0.8 (GeV/c)2.
We report a study of 20 exclusive reactions measured at the AGS at 5.9 GeV/c incident momentum, 90° center of mass. This experiment confirms the strong quark flow dependence of two-body hadron-hadron scattering at large angle. At 9.9 GeV/c an upper limit had been set for the ratio of cross sections for (p¯p→p¯p)(pp→pp) at 90° c.m., with the ratio less than 4%. The present experiment was performed at lower energy to gain sensitivity, but was still within the fixed angle scaling region. A ratio R(p¯ppp)≈140 was measured at 5.9 GeV/c, 90° c.m. in comparison to a ratio near 1.7 for small angle scattering. In addition, many other reactions were measured, often for the first time at 90° c.m. in the scaling region, using beams of π±, K±, p, and p¯ on a hydrogen target. There are similar large differences in cross sections for other reactions: R(K−p→π+Σ−K−p→π−Σ+)≈112, for example. The relative magnitudes of the different cross sections are consistent with the dominance of quark interchange in these 90° reactions, and indicate that pure gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams are much less important. The angular dependence of several elastic cross sections and the energy dependence at a fixed angle of many of the reactions are also presented.
Differential cross sections have been measured in the region of small forward angles (between 0 and ∼40 mrad) for the elastic scattering reactions pp → pp at 4.2, 7.0 and 10.0 GeV /c and p p → p p at 4.2, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 GeV /c . The maximum momentum transfer is ∼0.025 GeV 2 at the lowest and ∼0.10 GeV/c at the highest incident momentum. Values of the slope and the real part of the forward scattering amplitude of the above reactions have been derived; the values obtained are in good agreement with dispersion relations.