We present preliminary results on the measurement of a variety of exclusive hadron interactions at center of mass scattering angles of 90°. Data are also presented which show the relative transparency of nuclei to πp and pp elastic scattering in this kinematic range.
Analyses have been made for 871 four-prong events and 463 two-prong events corresponding to multiple pion production, resulting from p−p interactions at 2 Bev in the BNL 20-in. hydrogen bubble chamber. Cross sections have been obtained for all the observable double and triple pion production processes; the branching ratios predicted by the extended isobar model are shown to be in fair agreement with the data, but there are significant differences. The c.m. momentum distributions are also in fair agreement with the predictions of the model, although there are ambiguities in the interpretation. The pion-nucleon Q values give clear evidence for the importance of the (32, 32) resonant state in multiple pion production, but consideration of this state alone does not provide an explanation of the features of double pion production. Some contribution from another state, possibly the I=12 nucleon isobar, is necessary. In double production, the c.m. angular distributions of the nucleons show backward-forward peaking suggestive of a one-pion exchange process. The angular distributions of the nucleons from triple production are almost isotropic.
We report a study of 20 exclusive reactions measured at the AGS at 5.9 GeV/c incident momentum, 90° center of mass. This experiment confirms the strong quark flow dependence of two-body hadron-hadron scattering at large angle. At 9.9 GeV/c an upper limit had been set for the ratio of cross sections for (p¯p→p¯p)(pp→pp) at 90° c.m., with the ratio less than 4%. The present experiment was performed at lower energy to gain sensitivity, but was still within the fixed angle scaling region. A ratio R(p¯ppp)≈140 was measured at 5.9 GeV/c, 90° c.m. in comparison to a ratio near 1.7 for small angle scattering. In addition, many other reactions were measured, often for the first time at 90° c.m. in the scaling region, using beams of π±, K±, p, and p¯ on a hydrogen target. There are similar large differences in cross sections for other reactions: R(K−p→π+Σ−K−p→π−Σ+)≈112, for example. The relative magnitudes of the different cross sections are consistent with the dominance of quark interchange in these 90° reactions, and indicate that pure gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams are much less important. The angular dependence of several elastic cross sections and the energy dependence at a fixed angle of many of the reactions are also presented.
The absolute luminosity of the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings has been determined by the Van der Meer method. Combining the measurement with small angle proton-proton elastic events, we find σ elastic = (6.8±0.6)mb.
The reactions pp → NN π are studied at 19 GeV/ c and analysed in terms of the amplitudes with the low mass N π system in isospin states 1 2 and 3 2 respectively. The I − 1 2 cross section is compared with the corresponding one in π p→ ππ N at 8 GeV/ c .
Interactions of 14 GeV protons with free and quasi-free nucleons are studied in nuclear emulsion. The elastic cross-section for proton-free proton collision is estimated to be (11±4) mb. The numbers of protons, charged π-mesons and K-mesons per inelastic interaction are found to be 1.24±0.09, 2.53±0.19 and 0.30±0.06, respectively. The centre-of-mass system angular distributions and the mean values of the centre-of-mass system momenta for charged secondaries are given and compared with the results of works at other energies.
Elastic and inelastic 19.8 GeV/c proton-proton collisions in nuclear emulsion are examined using an external proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. Multiple scattering, blob density, range and angle measurements give the momentum spectra and angular distributions of secondary protons and pions. The partial cross-sections corresponding to inelastic interactions having two, four, six, eight, ten and twelve charged secondaries are found to be, respectively, (16.3±8.4) mb, (11.5 ± 6.0) mb, (4.3 ± 2.5) mb, (1.9 ± 1.3) mb, (0.5 ± 0.5) mb and (0.5±0.5)mb. The elastic cross-section is estimated to be (4.3±2.5) mb. The mean charged meson multiplicity for inelastic events is 3.7±0.5 and the average degree of inelasticity is 0.35±0.09. Strong forward and backward peaking is observed in the center-of-mass system for both secondary charged pions and protons. Distributions of energy, momentum and transverse momentum for identified charged secondaries are presented and compared with the results of work at other energies and with the results of a statistical theory of proton-proton collisions.