We have studied the properties of hadron production in photon-photon scattering with tagged photons at the e + e − storage ring PETRA. A tail in the p T distribution of particles consistent with p T −4 has been observed. We show that this tail cannot be due to the hadronic part of the photon. Selected events with high p T particles are found to be consistent with a two-jet structure as expected from a point-like coupling of the photons to quarks. The lowest-order cross section predicted for γγ → q q , σ = 3 Σ e q 4 · σ γγ → μμ , is approached from above by the data at large transverse momenta.
Production of proton-antiproton pairs by two-photon scattering has been observed at the electron-position storage ring PETRA. A total of eight proton-antiproton pairs have been identified using the time-of-flight technique. We have measured a total cross section of 4.5 ± 0.8 nb in the photon-photon c.m. energy range 2.0–2.6 GeV.
The formation of the η ′ in the reaction e + e − →e + e − η ′→e + e − π + π − γ has been measured by the L3 detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 91 GeV . The radiative width of the η ′ has been found to be Γ γγ =4.17±0.10 (stat.) ±0.27 (sys.) keV . The Q 2 dependence of the η ′ formation cross section has been measured for Q 2 ≤10 GeV 2 and the η ′ electromagnetic transition form factor has been determined. The form factor can be parametrised by a pole form with Λ=0.900±0.046 (stat.) ±0.022 (sys.) GeV . It is also consistent with recent non-perturbative QCD calculations.
The two-photon collision reaction e + e − → e + e − l + l − has been studied at 2 ≈91 GeV using the L3 detector at LEP for l = e, μ , τ . We have analysed untagged configurations where the two photons are quasi-real. Good agreement is found between our measurements and the O (α 4 ) QED expectation.
We have observed exclusive production of K + K − and K S O K S O pairs and the excitation of the f′(1515) tensor meson in photon-photon collisions. Assuming the f′ to be production in a helicity 2 state, we determine Λ( f ′ → γγ) B( f ′ → K K ) = 0.11 ± 0.02 ± 0.04 keV . The non-strange quark of the f′ is found to be less than 3% (95% CL). For the θ(1640) we derive an upper limit for the product Λ(θ rarr; γγ K K ) < 0.03 keV (95% CL ) .
The inclusive production of D ∗± mesons in photon-photon collisions has been measured by the Aleph experiment at LEP with a beam energy of 45 GeV. The D ∗+ are detected in their decay to D 0 π + with the D 0 observed in three separate decay modes: (1) K − π + , (2) K − π + π 0 and (3) K − π + π − π + , and analagously for the D ∗− modes. A total of 33 events was observed from an integrated luminosity of 73 pb −1 which corresponds to a cross section for Σ( e + e − → e + e − D ∗± X ) of 155 ± 33 ± 21 pb. This result is compatible with both the direct production γγ → c c in the Born approximation and with a more complete calculation which includes both radiative QCD corrections and contributions in which one of the photons is first resolved into its quark and gluon constituents. The shapes of distributions for events containing a D ∗+ are found to be better described by the latter.
The reaction γγ→π0η has been investigated with the Crystal Ball detector at the DESY storage ring DORIS II. Formation of δ(980) and A2(1320) has been observed with γγ partial widths Γγγ(A2)=1.14±0.20±0.2 6 keV and Γγγ(δ)B(δ→πη)=0.19±0.07 −0.07+0.10 keV.
The reaction e+e−→e+e−π0π0 has been analyzed using 97 pb−1 of data taken with the Crystal Ball detector at the DESY e−e+ storage ring DORIS II at beam energies around 5.3 GeV. For the first time we have measured the cross section for γγ→π0π0 for π0π0 mvariant masses ranging from threshold to about 2 GeV. We measure an approximately flat cross section of about 10 nb for W=mπ0π0<0.8 GeV, which is below 0.6 GeV, in good agreement with a theoretical prediction based on an unitarized Born-term model. At higher invariant masses we observe formation of the f2(1270) resonance and a hint of the f0(975). We deduce the following two-photon widths: Γγγ(f2(1270))=3.19±0.16±0.280.29 keV and Γγγ(f0(975))<0.53 keV at 90% C.L. The decay-angular distributions show the π0π0 system to be dominantly spin 0 for W<0.7 GeV and spin 2, helicity 2 in the f2(1270) region, with helicity 0 contributing at most 22% (90% C.L.).