Low-$p_T$ $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV at STAR

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 121 (2018) 132301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1676541 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.84821

We report first measurements of $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in the mass region 0.4 $

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The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

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Beam-energy dependence of the directed flow of deuterons in Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 044906, 2020.
Inspire Record 1806121 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95544

We present a measurement of the first-order azimuthal anisotropy, $v_1(y)$, of deuterons from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV recorded with the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The energy dependence of the $v_1(y)$ slope, $dv_{1}/dy|_{y=0}$, for deuterons, where $y$ is the rapidity, is extracted for semi-central collisions (10-40\% centrality) and compared to that of protons. While the $v_1(y)$ slopes of protons are generally negative for $\sqrt{s_{NN}} >$ 10 GeV, those for deuterons are consistent with zero, a strong enhancement of the $v_1(y)$ slope of deuterons is seen at the lowest collision energy (the largest baryon density) at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7 GeV. In addition, we report the transverse momentum dependence of $v_1$ for protons and deuterons. The experimental results are compared with transport and coalescence models.

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Invariant Jet Mass Measurements in $pp$ Collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 104 (2021) 052007, 2021.
Inspire Record 1853218 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102953

We present the first inclusive measurements of the invariant and SoftDrop jet mass in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV at STAR. The measurements are fully corrected for detector effects, and reported differentially in both the jet transverse momentum and jet radius parameter. We compare the measurements to established leading-order Monte Carlo event generators and find that STAR-tuned PYTHIA-6 reproduces the data, while LHC tunes of PYTHIA-8 and HERWIG-7 do not agree with the data, providing further constraints on parameter tuning. Finally, we observe that SoftDrop grooming, for which the contribution of wide-angle non-perturbative radiation is suppressed, shifts the jet mass distributions into closer agreement with the partonic jet mass as determined by both PYTHIA-8 and a next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy perturbative QCD calculation. These measurements complement recent LHC measurements in a different kinematic region, as well as establish a baseline for future jet mass measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC.

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Version 2
Global polarization of $\Lambda$ hyperons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adams, Joseph ; Agakishiev, Geydar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 98 (2018) 014910, 2018.
Inspire Record 1672785 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.99054

Global polarization of $\Lambda$ hyperons has been measured to be of the order of a few tenths of a percent in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV, with no significant difference between $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$. These new results reveal the collision energy dependence of the global polarization together with the results previously observed at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 7.7 -- 62.4 GeV and indicate noticeable vorticity of the medium created in non-central heavy-ion collisions at the highest RHIC collision energy. The signal is in rough quantitative agreement with the theoretical predictions from a hydrodynamic model and from the AMPT (A Multi-Phase Transport) model. The polarization is larger in more peripheral collisions, and depends weakly on the hyperon's transverse momentum and pseudorapidity $\eta^H$ within $|\eta^H|<1$. An indication of the polarization dependence on the event-by-event charge asymmetry is observed at the $2\sigma$ level, suggesting a possible contribution to the polarization from the axial current induced by the initial magnetic field.

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Results on total and elastic cross sections in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 808 (2020) 135663, 2020.
Inspire Record 1791591 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.94263

We report results on the total and elastic cross sections in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV obtained with the Roman Pot setup of the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The elastic differential cross section was measured in the squared four-momentum transfer range $0.045 \leq -t \leq 0.135$ GeV$^2$. The value of the exponential slope parameter $B$ of the elastic differential cross section $d\sigma/dt \sim e^{-Bt}$ in the measured $-t$ range was found to be $B = 14.32 \pm 0.09 (stat.)^{\scriptstyle +0.13}_{\scriptstyle -0.28} (syst.)$ GeV$^{-2}$. The total cross section $\sigma_{tot}$, obtained from extrapolation of the $d\sigma/dt$ to the optical point at $-t = 0$, is $\sigma_{tot} = 54.67 \pm 0.21 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +1.28}_{\scriptstyle -1.38} (syst.)$ mb. We also present the values of the elastic cross section $\sigma_{el} = 10.85 \pm 0.03 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +0.49}_{\scriptstyle -0.41}(syst.)$ mb, the elastic cross section integrated within the STAR $t$-range $\sigma^{det}_{el} = 4.05 \pm 0.01 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle+0.18}_{\scriptstyle -0.17}(syst.)$ mb, and the inelastic cross section $\sigma_{inel} = 43.82 \pm 0.21 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +1.37}_{\scriptstyle -1.44} (syst.)$ mb. The results are compared with the world data.

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Measurements of $W$ and $Z/\gamma^*$ cross sections and their ratios in p+p collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 103 (2021) 012001, 2021.
Inspire Record 1829350 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.99055

We report on the $W$ and $Z/\gamma^*$ differential and total cross sections as well as the $W^+$/$W^-$ and $(W^+ + W^-)$/$(Z/\gamma^*)$ cross-section ratios measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC in $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV and $510$ GeV. The cross sections and their ratios are sensitive to quark and antiquark parton distribution functions. In particular, at leading order, the $W$ cross-section ratio is sensitive to the $\bar{d}/\bar{u}$ ratio. These measurements were taken at high $Q^2 \sim M_W^2,M_Z^2$ and can serve as input into global analyses to provide constraints on the sea quark distributions. The results presented here combine three STAR data sets from 2011, 2012, and 2013, accumulating an integrated luminosity of 350 pb$^{-1}$. We also assess the expected impact that our $W^+/W^-$ cross-section ratios will have on various quark distributions, and find sensitivity to the $\bar{u}-\bar{d}$ and $\bar{d}/\bar{u}$ distributions.

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Beam energy dependence of (anti-)deuteron production in Au + Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adams, Joseph ; Agakishiev, Geydar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 99 (2019) 064905, 2019.
Inspire Record 1727273 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105510

We report the energy dependence of mid-rapidity (anti-)deuteron production in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\text{NN}} =\ $7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV, measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The yield of deuterons is found to be well described by the thermal model. The collision energy, centrality, and transverse momentum dependence of the coalescence parameter $B_2$ are discussed. We find that the values of $B_2$ for anti-deuterons are systematically lower than those for deuterons, indicating that the correlation volume of anti-baryons is larger than that of baryons at $\sqrt{s_\text{NN}}$ from 19.6 to 39 GeV. In addition, values of $B_2$ are found to vary with collision energy and show a broad minimum around $\sqrt{s_\text{NN}}=\ $20 to 40 GeV, which might imply a change of the equation of state of the medium in these collisions.

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Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet and dijet production in polarized proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 103 (2021) L091103, 2021.
Inspire Record 1850855 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.104836

We report high-precision measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, for midrapidity inclusive jet and dijet production in polarized $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s}=200\,\mathrm{GeV}$. The new inclusive jet data are sensitive to the gluon helicity distribution, $\Delta g(x,Q^2)$, for gluon momentum fractions in the range from $x \simeq 0.05$ to $x \simeq 0.5$, while the new dijet data provide further constraints on the $x$ dependence of $\Delta g(x,Q^2)$. The results are in good agreement with previous measurements at $\sqrt{s}=200\,\mathrm{GeV}$ and with recent theoretical evaluations of prior world data. Our new results have better precision and thus strengthen the evidence that $\Delta g(x,Q^2)$ is positive for $x > 0.05$.

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Measurement of inclusive J/$\psi$ polarization in $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt {s}$ =200 GeV by the STAR experiment

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 102 (2020) 092009, 2020.
Inspire Record 1806120 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95543

We report on new measurements of inclusive J/$\psi$ polarization at mid-rapidity in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The polarization parameters, $\lambda_\theta$, $\lambda_\phi$, and $\lambda_{\theta\phi}$, are measured as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) in both the Helicity and Collins-Soper (CS) reference frames within $p_T< 10$ GeV/$C$. Except for $\lambda_\theta$ in the CS frame at the highest measured $p_T$, all three polarization parameters are consistent with 0 in both reference frames without any strong $p_T$ dependence. Several model calculations are compared with data, and the one using the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory coupled with non-relativistic QCD gives the best overall description of the experimental results, even though other models cannot be ruled out due to experimental uncertainties.

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Beam-energy dependence of identified two-particle angular correlations in $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$ = 7.7–200 GeV Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adams, Joseph ; Agakishiev, Geydar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 101 (2020) 014916, 2020.
Inspire Record 1740846 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105909

The two-particle angular correlation functions, $R_2$, of pions, kaons, and protons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV were measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. These correlations were measured for both like-sign and unlike-sign charge combinations and versus the centrality. The correlations of pions and kaons show the expected near-side ({\it i.e.}, at small relative angles) peak resulting from short-range mechanisms. The amplitudes of these short-range correlations decrease with increasing beam energy. However, the proton correlation functions exhibit strong anticorrelations in the near-side region. This behavior is observed for the first time in an A+A collision system. The observed anticorrelation is $p_{T}$-independent and decreases with increasing beam energy and centrality. The experimental results are also compared to the Monte Carlo models UrQMD, Hijing, and AMPT.

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