This paper presents experimental results on π + π − production threshold from the collision of quasi-real photons. The data, obtained at the e + e − collider DCI, are a combination of the results from the DM1 and DM2 experiments. Using the e + e − and π + π − production for normalization and cross-checks, we observe a pion pair yield at low invariant mass ( W < 500 MeV/ c 2 ) which is approximately twice the one expected from Born terms.
This paper reports measurements of the hadrons produced in the inelastic scattering of 147-GeV muons by protons and deuterons in an experiment carried out at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Both the scattered muon and the hadrons were measured in a large spectrometer. Properties of the hadron spectra are presented for proton, deuteron, and neutron targets and compared with theoretical models and with hadron spectra from related processes. Emphasis is placed on the quark-parton model and the data are found to be in substantial agreement with it. The average transverse momentum of the hadrons with respect to the virtual photon direction shows no dependence on the muon scattering variables. The data display "jet behavior" of the inclusive hadrons comparable to that found in e+e− annihilations.
Inclusive charged hadron production, e+e- -> e+e- h+- X, is studied using 414 pb-1 of data collected at LEP with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 202 GeV. Single particle inclusive differential cross sections are measured as a function of the particle transverse momentum, pt, and pseudo-rapidity, eta. For p_t < 1.5 GeV, the data are well described by an exponential, typical of soft hadronic processes. For higher pt, the onset of perturbative QCD processes is observed. The pi+- production cross section for pt > 5 GeV is much higher than the NLO QCD predictions.
Three-jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering and photoproduction was investigated with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 127 pb-1. Measurements of differential cross sections are presented as functions of angular correlations between the three jets in the final state and the proton-beam direction. These correlations provide a stringent test of perturbative QCD and show sensitivity to the contributions from different colour configurations. Fixed-order perturbative QCD calculations assuming the values of the colour factors C_F, C_A and T_F as derived from a variety of gauge groups were compared to the measurements to study the underlying gauge group symmetry. The measured angular correlations in the deep inelastic ep scattering and photoproduction regimes are consistent with the admixture of colour configurations as predicted by SU(3) and disfavour other symmetry groups, such as SU(N) in the limit of large N.
Data were taken at the energy 2 E = 990 MeV to search for multibody events, with the same large solid angle detector which has been used for the measurement of the ϱ , ω and φ production by e + e − annilations. Assuming a π + π − π 0 π 0 production by the quasi two-body process e + e − → ϱ → ωπ 0 we give the correspondi ng cross section σ (e + e − → π + π − π 0 π 0 ) = (1.1 ± 0.5) 10 −32 cm 2 . Since no events with 3 and 4 charged pions have been observed σ (e + e − → π + π − π 0 π − ) ⩽ 1.5 × 10 −33 cm 2 .
We present a measurement of the cross section for the reaction e + e − → e + e − π + π − π + π − at SPEAR. This channel is found to be large and dominated by the process γγ → ϱ 0 ϱ 0 → π + π − π + π − . The cross section, which is small just above the four-pion threshold, exhibits a large enhancement near the ϱ 0 ϱ 0 threshold.
The hadronic photon structure function $F_2^\gamma(x,Q^2)$ is measured from data taken with the ALEPH detector at LEP. At centre-of-mass energies between