Measurement of multi-particle azimuthal correlations in $pp$, $p$+Pb and low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aaboud, Morad ; Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
No Journal Information, 2017.
Inspire Record 1599077 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77996

Multi-particle cumulants and corresponding Fourier harmonics are measured for azimuthal angle distributions of charged particles in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 and 13 TeV and in $p$+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV, and compared to the results obtained for low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. These measurements aim to assess the collective nature of particle production. The measurements of multi-particle cumulants confirm the evidence for collective phenomena in $p$+Pb and low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions. On the other hand, the $pp$ results for four-particle cumulants do not demonstrate collective behaviour, indicating that they may be biased by contributions from non-flow correlations. A comparison of multi-particle cumulants and derived Fourier harmonics across different collision systems is presented as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity. For a given multiplicity, the measured Fourier harmonics are largest in Pb+Pb, smaller in $p$+Pb and smallest in $pp$ collisions. The $pp$ results show no dependence on the collision energy, nor on the multiplicity.

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Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

The ATLAS collaboration Aaboud, Morad ; Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
No Journal Information, 2017.
Inspire Record 1512305 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77761

Light-by-light scattering ($\gamma\gamma\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead (Pb) ions. Using 480 $\mu$b$^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV by the ATLAS detector, the ATLAS Collaboration reports evidence for the $\gamma\gamma\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$ reaction. A total of 13 candidate events are observed with an expected background of 2.6$\pm$0.7 events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross section of the process $\textrm{Pb+Pb}\,(\gamma\gamma)\rightarrow \textrm{Pb}^{(\ast)}\textrm{+}\textrm{Pb}^{(\ast)}\,\gamma\gamma$, for photon transverse energy $E_{\mathrm{T}}>$3 GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity $|\eta|<$2.4, diphoton invariant mass greater than 6 GeV, diphoton transverse momentum lower than 2 GeV and diphoton acoplanarity below 0.01, is measured to be 70 $\pm$ 24 (stat.) $\pm$ 17 (syst.) nb, which is in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

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