Electroweak studies in e+ e- collisions: 12 < s**(1/2) < 46.78 GeV

The MARK J collaboration Adeva, B. ; Anderhub, H. ; Ansari, S. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 38 (1988) 2665-2678, 1988.
Inspire Record 274887 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.23272

The Mark J Collaboration at the DESY e+e− collider PETRA presents results on the electroweak reactions e+e−→μ+μ−τ+τ−,μ+μ−γ, and e+e−μ+μ−. The c.m. energy range is 12 to 46.78 GeV. In the μ+μ− and τ+τ− channels the total cross sections and the forward-backward asymmetries are reported and compared with other experiments. The results are in excellent agreement with the standard model. The weak-neutral-current vector and axial-vector coupling constants are determined. The values for muons and τ’s are compatible with universality and with the predictions of the standard model. In the μ+μ−γ channel, all measured distributions, including the forward-backward muon asymmetry, are in excellent agreement with the electroweak theory. Our data on the two-photon process, e+e−μ+μ−, agrees with QED to order α4 over the entire energy range and the Q2 range from 0.7 to 166 GeV2.

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Weak Neutral Currents in e+ e- Collisions at s**(1/2)=29-GeV

Levi, M.E. ; Blocker, C.A. ; Strait, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 51 (1983) 1941, 1983.
Inspire Record 191845 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.3281

The differential cross sections for lepton pair production in e+e− annihilation at 29 GeV have been measured and found to be in good agreement with the standard model of the electroweak interaction. With the assumption of e−μ−τ universality, the weak neutral-current couplings are determined to be ga2=0.23±0.05 and gv2=0.03±0.04.

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Study of Z boson production in pPb collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 759 (2016) 36-57, 2016.
Inspire Record 1410832 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71358

The production of Z bosons in pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV is studied by the CMS experiment via the electron and muon decay channels. The inclusive cross section is compared to pp collision predictions, and found to scale with the number of elementary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The differential cross sections as a function of the Z boson rapidity and transverse momentum are measured. Though they are found to be consistent within uncertainty with theoretical predictions both with and without nuclear effects, the forward-backward asymmetry suggests the presence of nuclear effects at large rapidities. These results provide new data for constraining nuclear parton distribution functions.

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Study of fermion pair production in $e^{+} e^{-}$ collisions at 130-GeV to 183-GeV

The ALEPH collaboration Barate, R. ; Decamp, D. ; Ghez, Philippe ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 12 (2000) 183-207, 2000.
Inspire Record 498072 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.49128

The cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries of hadronic and leptonic events produced in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 130-183 GeV are presented. Results for ee, mumu, tautau, qq, bb and cc production show no significant deviation from the Standard Model predictions. This enable constraints to be set upon physics beyond the Standard Model such as four-fermion contact interactions, leptoquarks, Z' bosons and R-parity violating squarks and sneutrinos. Limits on the energy scale Lambda of eeff contact interactions are typically in the range from 2-10 TeV. Limits on R-parity violating sneutrinos reach masses of a few hundred GeV for large values of their Yukawa couplings.

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Lepton asymmetry in W decays from $\bar{p}p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 1.8$ TeV

The CDF collaboration Abe, F. ; Amidei, Dante E. ; Apollinari, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 68 (1992) 1458-1462, 1992.
Inspire Record 323033 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.19880

The charge asymmetry of leptons from W-boson decay has been measured using p¯p data from the Collider Detector at Fermilab at √s =1.8 TeV. The observed asymmetry is well described by most of the available parton distributions.

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Study of W boson production in pPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} =$ 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 750 (2015) 565-586, 2015.
Inspire Record 1353541 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.69232

The first study of W boson production in pPb collisions is presented, for bosons decaying to a muon or electron, and a neutrino. The measurements are based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 34.6 inverse nanobarns at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV, collected by the CMS experiment. The W boson differential cross sections, lepton charge asymmetry, and forward-backward asymmetries are measured for leptons of transverse momentum exceeding 25 GeV, and as a function of the lepton pseudorapidity in the abs(eta[lab]) < 2.4 range. Deviations from the expectations based on currently available parton distribution functions are observed, showing the need for including W boson data in nuclear parton distribution global fits.

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Forward-Backward Asymmetry of Drell-Yan Lepton Pairs in $pp$ Collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 718 (2013) 752-772, 2013.
Inspire Record 1122847 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65322

A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry (A[FB]) of Drell-Yan lepton pairs in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 inverse femtobarns. The asymmetry is measured as a function of dilepton mass and rapidity in the dielectron and dimuon channels. Combined results from the two channels are also presented. The A[FB] measurement in the dimuon channel and the combination of the two channels are the first such results obtained at a hadron collider. The measured asymmetries are consistent with the standard model predictions.

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Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 113 (2014) 072301, 2014.
Inspire Record 1292792 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73441

We report measurements of single- and double- spin asymmetries for $W^{\pm}$ and $Z/\gamma^*$ boson production in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 510$ GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for $W^{\pm}$ were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the $W$ mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by recent polarized deep inelastic scattering measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range $0.05<x<0.2$.

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W and Z boson production in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
JHEP 02 (2017) 077, 2017.
Inspire Record 1496634 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77359

The W and Z boson production was measured via the muonic decay channel in proton-lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV at the Large Hadron Collider with the ALICE detector. The measurement covers backward ($-4.46 < y_{\rm cms} < -2.96$) and forward ($2.03 < y_{\rm cms} < 3.53$) rapidity regions, corresponding to Pb-going and p-going directions, respectively. The Z-boson production cross section, with dimuon invariant mass of $60<m_{\mu\mu}<120$ GeV/$c^2$ and muon transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}^\mu$) larger than 20 GeV/$c$, is measured. The production cross section and charge asymmetry of muons from W-boson decays with $p_{\rm T}^\mu>10$ GeV/$c$ are determined. The results are compared to theoretical calculations both with and without including the nuclear modification of the parton distribution functions. The W-boson production is also studied as a function of the collision centrality: the cross section of muons from W-boson decays is found to scale with the average number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions within uncertainties.

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Precise measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry in Z boson production by e+ e- collisions

The SLD collaboration Schumm, B.A. ;
Nucl.Phys.B Proc.Suppl. 40 (1995) 497-503, 1995.
Inspire Record 389176 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.31853

We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry ( A LR ) for Z boson production by e + e − collisions. The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam was (63.0±1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z decays, we measure A LR to be 0.1628±0.0071(stat.)±0.0028(syst.) which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W f eff = 0.2292 ± 0.0009(stat.) ± 0.0004(syst.).

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Spin correlation in $t\bar{t}$ production from $p\bar{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 1.8$ TeV

The D0 collaboration Abbott, B. ; Abolins, M. ; Abramov, V. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 85 (2000) 256-261, 2000.
Inspire Record 524260 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42996

The D0 collaboration has performed a study of spin correlation in tt-bar production for the process tt-bar to bb-bar W^+W^-, where the W bosons decay to e-nu or mu-nu. A sample of six events was collected during an exposure of the D0 detector to an integrated luminosity of approximately 125 pb^-1 of sqrt{s}=1.8 TeV pp-bar collisions. The standard model (SM) predicts that the short lifetime of the top quark ensures the transmission of any spin information at production to the tt-bar decay products. The degree of spin correlation is characterized by a correlation coefficient k. We find that k>-0.25 at the 68% confidence level, in agreement with the SM prediction of k=0.88.

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Precise measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry in Z boson production by e+ e- collisions

The SLD collaboration Abe, K. ; Abt, I. ; Ash, W.W. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 73 (1994) 25-29, 1994.
Inspire Record 373007 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.19681

We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry ($A_{LR}$) for $Z$ boson production by $\ee$ collisions. The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam was (63.0$\pm$1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 $\z0$ decays, we measure $A_{LR}$ to be 0.1628$\pm$0.0071(stat.)$\pm$0.0028(syst.) which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be $\swein=0.2292\pm0.0009({\rm stat.})\pm0.0004({\rm syst.})$.}

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First measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry in Z boson production by e+ e- collisions

The SLD collaboration Abe, K. ; Abt, I. ; Acton, P.D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 70 (1993) 2515-2520, 1993.
Inspire Record 352667 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.19765

We present the first measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (ALR) for Z boson production by e+e− collisions. The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy of 91.55 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider which utilized a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The average beam polarization was (22.4±0.6)%. Using a sample of 10 224 Z decays, we measure ALR to be 0.100±0.044(stat)±0.004(syst), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin2θWeff=0.2378 ±0.0056(stat)±0.0005(syst).

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Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production in $p \bar{p}$ collisions

The D0 collaboration Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 032002, 2016.
Inspire Record 1404885 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76972

We study $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production asymmetries in $p \bar{p} \rightarrow \Lambda (\bar{\Lambda}) X$, $p \bar{p} \rightarrow J/\psi \Lambda (\bar{\Lambda}) X$, and $p \bar{p} \rightarrow \mu^\pm \Lambda (\bar{\Lambda}) X$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV. We find an excess of $\Lambda$'s ($\bar{\Lambda}$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $\bar{\Lambda}/\Lambda$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.

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Forward–backward asymmetry of Drell–Yan lepton pairs in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 8$ $\,\mathrm{TeV}$

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 325, 2016.
Inspire Record 1415949 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73121

A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry A[FB] of oppositely charged lepton pairs (mu mu and e e) produced via Z/gamma* boson exchange in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse femtobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement of A[FB] is performed for dilepton masses between 40 GeV and 2 TeV and for dilepton rapidity up to 5. The A[FB] measurements as a function of dilepton mass and rapidity are compared with the standard model predictions.

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Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in low-mass bottom-quark pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions

The CDF collaboration Aaltonen, Timo Antero ; Amerio, Silvia ; Amidei, Dante E ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 112003, 2016.
Inspire Record 1416824 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77045

We report a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry, $A_{FB}$, in $b\bar{b}$ pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions and identified by muons from semileptonic $b$-hadron decays. The event sample was collected at a center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV with the CDF II detector and corresponds to 6.9 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. We obtain an integrated asymmetry of $A_{FB}(b\bar{b})=(1.2 \pm 0.7)$\% at the particle level for $b$-quark pairs with invariant mass, $m_{b\bar{b}}$, down to $40$ GeV/$c^2$ and measure the dependence of $A_{FB}(b\bar{b})$ on $m_{b\bar{b}}$. The results are compatible with expectations from the standard model.

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Measurement of the forward $W$ boson cross-section in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7 {\rm \, TeV}$

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Adeva, Bernardo ; Adinolfi, Marco ; et al.
JHEP 12 (2014) 079, 2014.
Inspire Record 1311488 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.11760

A measurement of the inclusive $W \to \mu\nu$ production cross-section using data from $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s} = 7 {\rm \, TeV}$ is presented. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of about $1.0 {\rm \, fb}^{-1}$ recorded with the LHCb detector. Results are reported for muons with a transverse momentum greater than $20 {\rm \, Ge\kern -0.1em V\!/}c$ and pseudorapidity between 2.0 and 4.5. The $W^{+}$ and $W^{-}$ production cross-sections are measured to be $$\sigma_{W^{+} \to \mu^{+}\nu} = 861.0 \pm 2.0 \pm 11.2 \pm 14.7 {\rm \, pb},$$ $$\sigma_{W^{-} \to \mu^{-}\overline{\nu}} = 675.8 \pm 1.9 \pm 8.8 \pm 11.6 {\rm \, pb},$$ where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic and the third is due to the luminosity determination. Cross-section ratios and differential distributions as functions of the muon pseudorapidity are also presented. The ratio of $W^{+}$ to $W^{-}$ cross-sections in the same fiducial kinematic region is determined to be $$\frac{\sigma_{W^{+} \to \mu^{+}\nu}}{\sigma_{W^{-} \to \mu^{-}\overline{\nu}}} = 1.274 \pm 0.005 \pm 0.009,$$ where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

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Measurement of the forward $Z$ boson production cross-section in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Adeva, Bernardo ; Adinolfi, Marco ; et al.
JHEP 08 (2015) 039, 2015.
Inspire Record 1373300 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.2114

A measurement of the production cross-section for $Z$ bosons that decay to muons is presented. The data were recorded by the LHCb detector during $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$. The cross-section is measured for muons in the pseudorapidity range $2.0 < \eta < 4.5$ with transverse momenta $p_{T} > 20$ GeV/c. The dimuon mass is restricted to $60 < M_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < 120$ GeV/c$^{2}$. The measured cross-section is $$\sigma_{Z\rightarrow\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} = (76.0 \pm 0.3 \pm 0.5 \pm 1.0 \pm 1.3) \, \text{pb}$$ where the uncertainties are due to the sample size, systematic effects, the beam energy and the luminosity. This result is in good agreement with theoretical predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The cross-section is also measured differentially as a function of kinematic variables of the $Z$ boson. Ratios of the production cross-sections of electroweak bosons are presented using updated LHCb measurements of $W$ boson production. A precise test of the Standard Model is provided by the measurement of the ratio $$\frac{\sigma_{W^{+}\rightarrow\mu^{+}\nu_{\mu}} + \sigma_{W^{-}\rightarrow\mu^{-}\bar{\nu}_{\mu}}}{\sigma_{Z\rightarrow\mu^{+}\mu^{-}}} = 20.63\pm0.09\pm0.12\pm0.05,$$ where the uncertainty due to luminosity cancels.

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The Charge asymmetry in $W$ boson decays produced in $p\bar{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 1.8$ TeV

The CDF collaboration Abe, F. ; Albrow, M.G. ; Amidei, D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 74 (1995) 850-854, 1995.
Inspire Record 379592 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42427

The charge asymmetry has been measured using $19,039W$ decays recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992-93 run of the Tevatron Collider. The asymmetry is sensitive to the ratio of $d$ and $u$ quark distributions to $x<0.01$ at $Q~2 \approx M_W~2$, where nonperturbative effects are minimal. It is found that of the two current sets of parton distributions, those of Martin, Roberts and Stirling (MRS) are favored over the sets most recently produced by the CTEQ collaboration. The $W$ asymmetry data provide a stronger constraints on $d/u$ ratio than the recent measurements of $F_2~{\mu n}/F_2~{\mu p}$ which are limited by uncertainties originating from deutron corrections.

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Measurement of the Electron Charge Asymmetry in Inclusive $W$ Production in $pp$ Collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 109 (2012) 111806, 2012.
Inspire Record 1118047 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66333

A measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in inclusive pp to W + X to e nu + X production at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented based on data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 840 inverse picobarns. The electron charge asymmetry reflects the unequal production of positive and negative W bosons in pp collisions. The electron charge asymmetry is measured in bins of absolute value of electron pseudorapidity in the range of abs(eta) < 2.4. The asymmetry rises from about 0.1 to 0.2 as a function of the pseudorapidity and is measured with a relative precision better than 7%. This measurement provides new stringent constraints for parton distribution functions.

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Charged particle nuclear modification factor and pseudorapidity asymmetry in pPb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=5.02 TeV with CMS

The CMS collaboration
2013.
Inspire Record 1263706 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66742

The charged particle transverse momentum spectra in the midrapidity and forward pseudorapidity ranges are presented for pPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$~TeV. The data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 26~${\rm nb}^{-1}$ was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The nuclear modification factor is measured at midrapidity by normalizing the measured pPb spectrum to a pp reference spectrum constructed from previous measurements. In addition, the asymmetries in the charged particle yields between equivalent positive and negative pseudorapidity ranges in the center-of-mass frame are presented as a function of transverse momentum.

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Charged-pion cross sections and double-helicity asymmetries in polarized p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 91 (2015) 032001, 2015.
Inspire Record 1315330 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71403

We present the midrapidity charged pion invariant cross sections and the ratio of $\pi^-$-to-$\pi^+$ production ($5<p_T<13$ GeV/$c$), together with the double-helicity asymmetries ($5<p_T<12$ GeV/$c$) in polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. The cross section measurements are consistent with perturbative calculations in quantum chromodynamics within large uncertainties in the calculation due to the choice of factorization, renormalization, and fragmentation scales. However, the theoretical calculation of the ratio of $\pi^-$-to-$\pi^+$ production when considering these scale uncertainties overestimates the measured value, suggesting further investigation of the uncertainties on the charge-separated pion fragmentation functions is needed. Due to cancellations of uncertainties in the charge ratio, direct inclusion of these ratio data in future parameterizations should improve constraints on the flavor dependence of quark fragmentation functions to pions. By measuring charge-separated pion asymmetries, one can gain sensitivity to the sign of $\Delta G$ through the opposite sign of the up and down quark helicity distributions in conjunction with preferential fragmentation of positive pions from up quarks and negative pions from down quarks. The double-helicity asymmetries presented are sensitive to the gluon helicity distribution over an $x$ range of $\sim$0.03--0.16.

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Measurement of parity-violating spin asymmetries in W$^{\pm}$ production at midrapidity in longitudinally polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 051103, 2016.
Inspire Record 1365091 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73691

We present measurements from the PHENIX experiment of large parity-violating single spin asymmetries of high transverse momentum electrons and positrons from $W^\pm/Z$ decays, produced in longitudinally polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions at center of mass energies of $\sqrt{s}$=500 and 510~GeV. These asymmetries allow direct access to the anti-quark polarized parton distribution functions due to the parity-violating nature of the $W$-boson coupling to quarks and anti-quarks. The results presented are based on data collected in 2011, 2012, and 2013 with an integrated luminosity of 240 pb$^{-1}$, which exceeds previous PHENIX published results by a factor of more than 27. These high $Q^2$ data provide an important addition to our understanding of anti-quark parton helicity distribution functions.

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Observation of charge asymmetry dependence of pion elliptic flow and the possible chiral magnetic wave in heavy-ion collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 114 (2015) 252302, 2015.
Inspire Record 1358666 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72237

We present measurements of $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ elliptic flow, $v_2$, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} =$ 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5 and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, $A_{ch}$, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that $\pi^-$ ($\pi^+$) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = \text{27 GeV}$ and higher. At $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = \text{200 GeV}$, the slope of the difference of $v_2$ between $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ as a function of $A_{ch}$ exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

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Observation of nuclear modifications in W$^\pm$ boson production in pPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} =$ 8.16 TeV

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 800 (2020) 135048, 2020.
Inspire Record 1733223 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.88284

The production of W$^\pm$ bosons is studied in proton-lead (pPb) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} =$ 8.16 TeV. Measurements are performed in the W$^\pm$ $\to$ $\mu^\pm\nu_\mu$ channel using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 173.4 $\pm$ 8.7 nb$^{-1}$, collected by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC. The number of positively and negatively charged W bosons is determined separately in the muon pseudorapidity region in the laboratory frame $|\eta^\mu_\mathrm{lab}|$ $<$ 2.4 and transverse momentum $p_\mathrm{T}^\mu$ $>$ 25 GeV/$c$. The W$^\pm$ boson differential cross sections, muon charge asymmetry, and the ratios of W$^\pm$ boson yields for the proton-going over the Pb-going beam directions are reported as a function of the muon pseudorapidity in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass frame. The measurements are compared to the predictions from theoretical calculations based on parton distribution functions (PDFs) at next-to-leading-order. The results favour PDF calculations that include nuclear modifications and provide constraints on the nuclear PDF global fits.

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