Data on multiplicities of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon are presented. It is shown that the mean multiplicity of negative particles is proportional to the mean number of nucleons participating in the collision both for nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions. The apparent consistency of pion multiplicity data with the assumption of an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions is critically discussed.
The excitation of theΔ resonance is observed in proton collisions on C, Nb and Pb targets at 0.8 and 1.6 GeV incident energies. The mass E0 and widthΓ of the resonance are determined from the invariant mass spectra of correlated (p, π±)-pairs in the final state of the collision: The mass E0 is smaller than that of the free resonance, however by comparing to intra-nuclear cascade calculations, this reduction is traced back to the effects of Fermi motion, NN scattering and pion reabsorption in nuclear matter.
Multiplicity distributions of negatively charged particles have been studied in restricted phase space intervals for central S+S, O+Au and S+Au collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon. It is shown that multiplicity distributions are well described by a negative binomial form irrespectively of the size and dimensionality of phase space domain. A clan structure analysis reveals interesting similarities between complex nuclear collisions and a simple partonic shower. The lognormal distribution agrees reasonably well with the multiplicity data in large domains, but fails in the case of small intervals. No universal scaling function was found to describe the shape of multiplicity distributions in phase space intervals of varying size.
Data on stable hadron production in p + p and p + n interactions at 200 GeV/ c are reviewed. Methods to construct missing data in the p + p, p + n, and n + n interactions are derived from charge symmetry and charge, baryon and strangeness conservation, and used to yield nucleon-nucleon interaction results. These may be useful for evaluating nucleus-nucleus collision measurements in terms of enhancements and suppressions. Parameterizations of p t 2 and rapidity distributions are presented to provide yields in acceptance cuts for comparisons to nucleus-nucleus data. As an example the derived nucleon-nucleon multiplicities are reduced to the acceptances of the NA-35 CERN S + S experiment.
The production of π±,K±,p has been measured in p+Be and p+Au collisions for comparison with central Si+Au collisions. The inverse slope parameters T0 obtained by an exponential fit to the invariant cross sections in transverse mass are found to be, T0p,K+,ππ∼140–160 MeV in p+A collisions, whereas in central Si+Au collisions, T0p,K+∼200–220 MeV >T0ππ∼140–160 MeV at midrapidity. The π± and K+ distributions are shifted backwards in p+Au compared with p+Be. A gradual increase of (dn/dy)K+ per projectile nucleon is observed from p+Be to p+Au to central Si+Au collisions, while pions show no significant increase.
Inclusive double differential multiplicities d2N/dy dpt and related quantities have been measured for protons and deuterons produced in 14.6A GeV/c Si+Al and Si+Pb collisions using the E814 forward spectrometer at the AGS at BNL. Collision ‘‘centrality’’ is determined by measuring Nc, the total charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity range 0.85<η<3.8. For both systems Si + Al and Si + Pb, an increase in the proton rapidity distribution dN/dy at midrapidity and a corresponding decrease at higher rapidities are observed with increasing Nc. For Si+Pb, Boltzmann slope parameters TB increase significantly in the most central collisions. The measured distributions exhibit a centrality dependence even when σ/σgeo≲10%, where full overlap between the Si and Pb nuclei occurs in a simple geometric picture. The proton rapidity distribution dN/dy is presented for the symmetric system Si+Al over the entire rapididty interval. The total number of protons, which is the integral of this quantity over rapidity, varies with Nc. Results are compared with various model calculations, mostly using the hadronic cascade codes ARC and RQMD. No significant nuclear transparency is observed, indicating that large baryon and energy densities are produced in these collisions.
Deep inelastic scattering (DIS) events, selected from 1993 data taken by the H1 experiment at HERA, are studied in the Breit frame of reference. The fragmentation function of the quark is compared with those of \ee data. It is shown that certain aspects of the quarks emerging from within the proton in \ep interactions are essentially the same as those of quarks pair-created from the vacuum in \ee annihilation. The measured area, peak position and widthof the fragmentation function show that the kinematic evolution variable, equivalent to the \ee squared centre of mass energy, is in the Breit frame the invariant square of the four-momentum transfer. We comment on the extent to which we have evidence for coherence effects in parton showers.
We have measured the multiplicities of pions produced in the collisions of π mesons with neon nuclei at bombarding momenta of 10.5 and 200 GeV/c. The diffractive production of pions is clearly separable. If one excludes the diffractive part, the pion multiplicity obeys the same Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling as found previously for π−−p collisions. This fact would seem to indicate the validity of an energy-flux or collective-variable description of the production process. A surprisingly large number of energetic protons (> 1 GeV/c lab momentum) are found to be produced in π-Ne collisions.