Strangeness in nuclear collisions

Gazdzicki, Marek ; Rohrich, Dieter ;
Z.Phys.C 71 (1996) 55-64, 1996.
Inspire Record 420462 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.13638

Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton--proton and central nucleus--nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon--nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus--nucleus collisions than for nucleon--nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon--nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus--nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the Quark Gluon Plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies.

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Pion multiplicity in nuclear collisions

Gazdzicki, M. ; Roehrich, D. ;
Z.Phys.C 65 (1995) 215-223, 1995.
Inspire Record 398172 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14107

Data on the mean multiplicity ofπ- produced in minimum bias proton-proton, proton-neutron and proton-nucleus interactions as well as central nucleus-nucleus collisions at momenta of 1.4–400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled and studied. The results for neutron-neutron and nucleon-nucleon interactions were then constructed. The dependence of the mean pion multiplicity in proton-nucleus interactions and central collisions of identical nuclei are studied as a function of the collision energy and the nucleus mass number. The number of produced pions per participant nucleon in central collisions of identical nuclei is found to be independent of the number of participants at a fixed incident momentum per nucleon. The mean multiplicity of negatively charged hadrons per participant nucleon for central nucleus-nucleus collisions is lower by about 0.12 than the corresponding multiplicity for nucleon-nucleon interactions atpLAB≲15 A·GeV/c, whereas the result at 200 A·GeV/c is above the corresponding nucleon-nucleon multiplicity. This may indicate change of the collision dynamics at high energy.

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Hadron spectra in hadron - nucleus collisions

Armutliiski, D. ; Baatar, Ts. ; Batsaikhan, Ts. ; et al.
Inspire Record 319258 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38698
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On pion production intensities in hadron - nucleus collisions

Strugalska-Gola, E. ; Strugalski, Z. ; Sredniawa, B. ; et al.
Inspire Record 428911 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.39365
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Target associated particle production in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

Sengupta, K. ; Jain, P.L. ; Singh, G. ;
Mod.Phys.Lett.A 6 (1991) 29-39, 1991.
Inspire Record 316958 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.37873

We report the multiplicity and angular distributions of the low energy target-associated particles from 32S and 16O induced reactions at 200 GeV/nucleon and 16O induced reactions at 60 GeV/nucleon in emulsion. The results are compared with the Monte-Carlo Code VENUS.

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Di-jet production in gamma gamma collisions at LEP2

The DELPHI collaboration Abdallah, J. ; Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 58 (2008) 531-541, 2008.
Inspire Record 806241 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.51688

The production of two high-p_T jets in the interactions of quasi-real photons in e+e- collisions at sqrt{s_ee} from 189 GeV to 209 GeV is studied with data corresponding to an integrated e+e- luminosity of 550 pb^{-1}. The jets reconstructed by the k_T cluster algorithm are defined within the pseudo-rapidity range -1 < eta < 1 and with jet transverse momentum, p_T, above 3 GeV/c. The differential di-jet cross-section is measured as a function of the mean transverse momentum ptmean of the jets and is compared to perturbative QCD calculations.

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Charged particle multiplicities in nuclear collisions at 200-GeV/N

The NA35 collaboration Bächler, J. ; Bartke, J. ; Bialkowska, H. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 51 (1991) 157-162, 1991.
Inspire Record 320907 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14983

Data on multiplicities of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon are presented. It is shown that the mean multiplicity of negative particles is proportional to the mean number of nucleons participating in the collision both for nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions. The apparent consistency of pion multiplicity data with the assumption of an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions is critically discussed.

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Excitation of the Delta (1232) resonance in proton - nucleus collisions

Trzaska, M. ; Pelte, D. ; Lemaire, M. -C. ; et al.
Z.Phys.A 340 (1991) 325-331, 1991.
Inspire Record 314551 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15689

The excitation of theΔ resonance is observed in proton collisions on C, Nb and Pb targets at 0.8 and 1.6 GeV incident energies. The mass E0 and widthΓ of the resonance are determined from the invariant mass spectra of correlated (p, π±)-pairs in the final state of the collision: The mass E0 is smaller than that of the free resonance, however by comparing to intra-nuclear cascade calculations, this reduction is traced back to the effects of Fermi motion, NN scattering and pion reabsorption in nuclear matter.

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The role of double parton collisions in soft hadron interactions

Alexopoulos, T. ; Anderson, E.W. ; Biswas, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 435 (1998) 453-457, 1998.
Inspire Record 480349 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.27080

We have examined charged multiplicities arising from p − p and p− p ̄ collisions over the range of center of mass energies, s , from 30 GeV to 1800 GeV. Results from Tevatron experiment E735 support the presence of double parton interactions. These processes can be seen to account for a large fraction of the increase in the non single diffraction inelastic cross section from energies of about 200 GeV to 1800 GeV.

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Strangeness enhancement in central S + S collisions at 200-GeV/nucleon

The NA35 collaboration Baechler, J. ; Bartke, J. ; Bialkowska, H. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.A 525 (1991) 221C-226C, 1991.
Inspire Record 328899 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.36820
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Particle production in He Li collisions at 4.5-A/GeV/c

Al-Baaj, E. ; Al-Baaj, S. ; Besliu, C. ; et al.
Nuovo Cim.A 107 (1994) 1611-1623, 1994.
Inspire Record 384746 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.37842

In this paper the main experimental results on some significant physical quantities obtained in He−Li collisions at 4.5A GeV/c are presented. The experiments have been performed at the Syncrophasotron from JINR Dubna, in the frame of the SKM 200 Collaboration.

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Bartke, J. ; Chkhaidze, L. ; Gasparian, A. ; et al.
Sov.J.Nucl.Phys. 32 (1980) 361, 1980.
Inspire Record 144581 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.17870
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Multifractal analysis of Au-197 emulsion collisions at 10.6-A/GeV

Singh, G. ; Jain, P.L. ;
Phys.Rev.C 50 (1994) 2508-2515, 1994.
Inspire Record 386053 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.25989

We compute the multifractal moments Gq in terms of a new scaled variable X suggested by Bialas and Gazdzicki to study the dynamical fluctuations of particles produced in the interactions of Au197 at 10.6A GeV with nuclear emulsion. An asymptotic power-law dependence of the moments on the bin size δX has been observed in pseudorapidity (η), azimuthal (φ), and η-φ phase spaces. The dynamical values of the generalized dimensions are determined in all the phase spaces. The dynamical properties of the produced particles are mapped onto smooth multifractal spectra f(Δαq) by excluding the statistical contribution. The Au197 results are compared with a Si28 ion at 14.5A GeV and a S32 beam at 200A GeV.

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Charged Particle Multiplicity Distributions in p p Collisions at ISR Energies

The Aachen-CERN-Heidelberg-Munich collaboration Thome, W. ; Eggert, K. ; Giboni, K. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 129 (1977) 365, 1977.
Inspire Record 120863 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.55890

We present the first direct measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions for pp collisions at ISR energies. The measurements are performed by means of a streamer chamber detector with large solid-angle coverage and excellent multitrack efficiency. Particle densities are observed to rise in the central region as s increases. The multiplicity distributions in this region deviate from a Poisson Law, thus giving evidence for correlations. These correlations are of the same type as those obtained from clustering of the collision products. The mean charged multiplicity over the full rapidity range increases faster than log s . Our data do not support an early onset of KNO multiplicity scaling.

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Mehdiyev, Rashid R. ; Cheplakov, A.P. ;
Inspire Record 268658 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.9419
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Xi and anti-xi production in 158-GeV / nucleon Pb + Pb collisions

The NA49 collaboration Appelshäuser, H. ; Bächler, J. ; Bailey, S.J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 444 (1998) 523-530, 1998.
Inspire Record 477539 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.31330

We report measurements of Xi and Xi-bar hyperon absolute yields as a function of rapidity in 158 GeV/c Pb+Pb collisions. At midrapidity, dN/dy = 2.29 +/- 0.12 for Xi, and 0.52 +/- 0.05 for Xi-bar, leading to the ratio of Xi-bar/Xi = 0.23 +/- 0.03. Inverse slope parameters fitted to the measured transverse mass spectra are of the order of 300 MeV near mid-rapidity. The estimated total yield of Xi particles in Pb+Pb central interactions amounts to 7.4 +/- 1.0 per collision. Comparison to Xi production in properly scaled p+p reactions at the same energy reveals a dramatic enhancement (about one order of magnitude) of Xi production in Pb+Pb central collisions over elementary hadron interactions.

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Energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb + Pb collisions

The NA49 collaboration Afanasiev, S.V. ; Anticic, T. ; Barna, D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 66 (2002) 054902, 2002.
Inspire Record 586383 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.31729

Measurements of charged pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 40, 80 and 158 AGeV are presented. These are compared with data at lower and higher energies as well as with results from p+p interactions. The mean pion multiplicity per wounded nucleon increases approximately linearly with s_NN^1/4 with a change of slope starting in the region 15-40 AGeV. The change from pion suppression with respect to p+p interactions, as observed at low collision energies, to pion enhancement at high energies occurs at about 40 AGeV. A non-monotonic energy dependence of the ratio of K^+ to pi^+ yields is observed, with a maximum close to 40 AGeV and an indication of a nearly constant value at higher energies.The measured dependences may be related to an increase of the entropy production and a decrease of the strangeness to entropy ratio in central Pb+Pb collisions in the low SPS energy range, which is consistent with the hypothesis that a transient state of deconfined matter is created above these energies. Other interpretations of the data are also discussed.

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Hadron production in nucleon-nucleon collisions at 200-GeV/c: A Compilation

Gazdzicki, M. ; Hansen, O. ;
Nucl.Phys.A 528 (1991) 754-770, 1991.
Inspire Record 323125 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.36760

Data on stable hadron production in p + p and p + n interactions at 200 GeV/ c are reviewed. Methods to construct missing data in the p + p, p + n, and n + n interactions are derived from charge symmetry and charge, baryon and strangeness conservation, and used to yield nucleon-nucleon interaction results. These may be useful for evaluating nucleus-nucleus collision measurements in terms of enhancements and suppressions. Parameterizations of p t 2 and rapidity distributions are presented to provide yields in acceptance cuts for comparisons to nucleus-nucleus data. As an example the derived nucleon-nucleon multiplicities are reduced to the acceptances of the NA-35 CERN S + S experiment.

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Charged Particle Multiplicities and Interaction Cross-sections in High-energy Nuclear Collisions

The NA35 collaboration Bamberger, A. ; Bangert, D. ; Bartke, J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 205 (1988) 583-589, 1988.
Inspire Record 262284 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42035

Inelastic cross sections at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon are determined in a streamer chamber for 16 O on several nuclear targets. Charged particle multiplicity distributions for inelastic and central collisions are studied and compared with theoretical predictions. The inelastic cross section exhibit a geometrical dependence on nuclear radii. The multiplicity data are governed by the collision geometry. They are consistent with a picture of superposition of independent nucleon-nucleus interactions.

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Comparison of p + A and Si + Au collisions at 14.6-GeV/c

The E802 collaboration Abbott, T. ; Akiba, Y. ; Beavis, D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 66 (1991) 1567-1570, 1991.
Inspire Record 331219 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.19913

The production of π±,K±,p has been measured in p+Be and p+Au collisions for comparison with central Si+Au collisions. The inverse slope parameters T0 obtained by an exponential fit to the invariant cross sections in transverse mass are found to be, T0p,K+,ππ∼140–160 MeV in p+A collisions, whereas in central Si+Au collisions, T0p,K+∼200–220 MeV >T0ππ∼140–160 MeV at midrapidity. The π± and K+ distributions are shifted backwards in p+Au compared with p+Be. A gradual increase of (dn/dy)K+ per projectile nucleon is observed from p+Be to p+Au to central Si+Au collisions, while pions show no significant increase.

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Multiplicity distributions in small phase space domains in central nucleus-nucleus collisions

The NA35 collaboration Bächler, J. ; Bartke, J. ; Białkowska, H. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 57 (1993) 541-550, 1993.
Inspire Record 342658 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14492

Multiplicity distributions of negatively charged particles have been studied in restricted phase space intervals for central S+S, O+Au and S+Au collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon. It is shown that multiplicity distributions are well described by a negative binomial form irrespectively of the size and dimensionality of phase space domain. A clan structure analysis reveals interesting similarities between complex nuclear collisions and a simple partonic shower. The lognormal distribution agrees reasonably well with the multiplicity data in large domains, but fails in the case of small intervals. No universal scaling function was found to describe the shape of multiplicity distributions in phase space intervals of varying size.

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Centrality dependence of longitudinal and transverse baryon distributions in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

The E814 collaboration Barrette, J. ; Bellwied, R. ; Braun-Munzinger, P. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 50 (1994) 3047-3059, 1994.
Inspire Record 385496 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.25982

Inclusive double differential multiplicities d2N/dy dpt and related quantities have been measured for protons and deuterons produced in 14.6A GeV/c Si+Al and Si+Pb collisions using the E814 forward spectrometer at the AGS at BNL. Collision ‘‘centrality’’ is determined by measuring Nc, the total charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity range 0.85<η<3.8. For both systems Si + Al and Si + Pb, an increase in the proton rapidity distribution dN/dy at midrapidity and a corresponding decrease at higher rapidities are observed with increasing Nc. For Si+Pb, Boltzmann slope parameters TB increase significantly in the most central collisions. The measured distributions exhibit a centrality dependence even when σ/σgeo≲10%, where full overlap between the Si and Pb nuclei occurs in a simple geometric picture. The proton rapidity distribution dN/dy is presented for the symmetric system Si+Al over the entire rapididty interval. The total number of protons, which is the integral of this quantity over rapidity, varies with Nc. Results are compared with various model calculations, mostly using the hadronic cascade codes ARC and RQMD. No significant nuclear transparency is observed, indicating that large baryon and energy densities are produced in these collisions.

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An Analysis of multiplicity dependence on pseudorapidity intervals at high-energy collisions

Jain, P.L. ; Mukhopadhyay, A. ; Singh, G. ;
Phys.Lett.B 294 (1992) 27-32, 1992.
Inspire Record 337514 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29008

Pseudorapidity-interval dependence of multiplicity distributions of shower particles produced in high energy interactions of protons at 800 GeV, 4 He at ≈ 11 A GeV, and 28 Si at 14.5 A GeV in nuclear emulsions have been investigated. The multiplicity distributions and correlated moments are parametrised successfully in terms of a negative binomial distribution (NBD). The heavy-ion data for NBD agree well with the predictions of the multistring Monte Carlo code VENUS.

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Kass, R.D. ; Ko, W. ; Lander, R.L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 20 (1979) 605-614, 1979.
Inspire Record 146628 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.24207

Charged- and neutral-particle production from 400-GeV/c pp collisions are measured simultaneously using the Fermilab 15-ft bubble chamber. The π0 and K0 cross sections are rising at Fermilab energies, while the Λ0 cross section remains fairly constant. Similarly, the average number of π0's and K0's increases as a function of the number of negative particles in an event, yet no such dependence is noted for the Λ0's. The ratio of average number of π0 to average number of π− per inelastic collisions is found to be constant at Serpukhov and Fermilab energies (40 to 400 GeV/c) and equal to 1.22±0.02. Cross sections for Σ0 and Σ¯0 production are measured and limits are found for η0 and ω0 production. Neutral- and charged-pion correlations are compared with five pion-production models.

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Search for direct photons from S - Au collisions at 200-GeV/u

The CERES collaboration Baur, R. ; Breskin, A. ; Chechik, R. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 71 (1996) 571-578, 1996.
Inspire Record 398323 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.48133
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