Measurements of phi meson production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abelev, B.I. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 79 (2009) 064903, 2009.
Inspire Record 797805 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.99047

We present results for the measurement of $\phi$ meson production via its charged kaon decay channel $\phi \to K^+K^-$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$, 130, 200 GeV, and in p+p and d+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV from the STAR experiment at RHIC. The mid-rapidity ($|y|<0.5$) $\phi$ meson spectra in central Au+Au collisions are found to be well described by a single exponential distribution. On the other hand, the spectra from p+p, d+Au and peripheral Au+Au collisions show power-law tails at intermediate and high transverse momenta ($p_{T}$) and are described better by Levy distributions. The constant $\phi/K^-$ yield ratio vs. beam species, collision centrality and colliding energy is in contradiction with expectations from models having kaon coalescence as the dominant mechanism for $\phi$ production at RHIC. The $\Omega/\phi$ yield ratio as a function of $p_{T}$ is consistent with a model based on the recombination of thermal $s$ quarks up to $p_{T}\sim 4$ GeV/c, but disagrees at higher transverse momenta. The measured nuclear modification factor, $R_{dAu}$, for the $\phi$ meson increases above unity at intermediate $p_{T}$, similar to that for pions and protons, while $R_{AA}$ is suppressed due to jet quenching in central Au+Au collisions. Number of constituent quark scaling of both $R_{cp}$ and $v_{2}$ for the $\phi$ meson with respect to other hadrons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV at intermediate $p_{T}$ is observed. These observations support quark coalescence as being the dominant mechanism of hadronization in the intermediate $p_{T}$ region at RHIC.

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Global $\Lambda$-hyperon polarization in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$=3 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 104 (2021) L061901, 2021.
Inspire Record 1897216 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110658

Global hyperon polarization, $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$, in Au+Au collisions over a large range of collision energy, $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$, has recently been measured and successfully reproduced by hydrodynamic and transport models with intense fluid vorticity of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). While naïve extrapolation of data trends suggests a large $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$ as the collision energy is reduced, the behavior of $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$ at small $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}<7.7$ GeV is unknown. Operating the STAR experiment in fixed-target mode, we have measured the polarization of $\Lambda$ hyperons along the direction of global angular momentum in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}=3$ GeV. The observation of substantial polarization of $4.91\pm0.81(\rm stat.)\pm0.15(\rm syst.)$% in these collisions may require a reexamination of the viscosity of any fluid created in the collision, the thermalization timescale of rotational modes, and of hadronic mechanisms to produce global polarization.

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Three-particle coincidence of the long range pseudorapidity correlation in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

The STAR collaboration Abelev, B.I. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 105 (2010) 022301, 2010.
Inspire Record 840812 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102404

We report the first three-particle coincidence measurement in pseudorapidity ($\Delta\eta$) between a high transverse momentum ($p_{\perp}$) trigger particle and two lower $p_{\perp}$ associated particles within azimuth $\mid$$\Delta\phi$$\mid$$&lt;$0.7 in $\sqrt{{\it s}_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV $d$+Au and Au+Au collisions. Charge ordering properties are exploited to separate the jet-like component and the ridge (long-range $\Delta\eta$ correlation). The results indicate that the particles from the ridge are uncorrelated in $\Delta\eta$ not only with the trigger particle but also between themselves event-by-event. In addition, the production of the ridge appears to be uncorrelated to the presence of the narrow jet-like component.

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Transverse momentum correlations and minijet dissipation in Au-Au collisions at s(NN)**(1/2)-GeV

The STAR collaboration Adams, John ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
J.Phys.G 34 (2007) 799-816, 2007.
Inspire Record 656302 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102087

Measurements of two-particle correlations on transverse momentum $p_t$ for Au-Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 130$ GeV are presented. Significant large-momentum-scale correlations are observed for charged primary hadrons with $0.15 \leq p_t \leq 2$ GeV/$c$ and pseudorapidity $|\eta| \leq 1.3$. Such correlations were not observed in a similar study at lower energy and are not predicted by theoretical collision models. Their direct relation to mean-$p_t$ fluctuations measured in the same angular acceptance is demonstrated. Positive correlations are observed for pairs of particles which have large $p_t$ values while negative correlations occur for pairs in which one particle has large $p_t$ and the other has much lower $p_t$. The correlation amplitudes per final state particle increase with collision centrality. The observed correlations are consistent with a scenario in which the transverse momentum of hadrons associated with initial-stage semi-hard parton scattering is dissipated by the medium to lower $p_t$.

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Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations and possible local strong parity violation in heavy ion collisions

The STAR collaboration Abelev, B.I. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 81 (2010) 054908, 2010.
Inspire Record 830676 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98577

Parity-odd domains, corresponding to non-trivial topological solutions of the QCD vacuum, might be created during relativistic heavy-ion collisions. These domains are predicted to lead to charge separation of quarks along the orbital momentum of the system created in non-central collisions. To study this effect, we investigate a three particle mixed harmonics azimuthal correlator which is a \P-even observable, but directly sensitive to the charge separation effect. We report measurements of this observable using the STAR detector in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 and 62~GeV. The results are presented as a function of collision centrality, particle separation in rapidity, and particle transverse momentum. A signal consistent with several of the theoretical expectations is detected in all four data sets. We compare our results to the predictions of existing event generators, and discuss in detail possible contributions from other effects that are not related to parity violation.

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Elliptic flow of identified hadrons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7-62.4 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 88 (2013) 014902, 2013.
Inspire Record 1210464 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102408

Measurements of the elliptic flow, $v_{2}$, of identified hadrons ($\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $K_{s}^{0}$, $p$, $\bar{p}$, $\phi$, $\Lambda$, $\bar{\Lambda}$, $\Xi^{-}$, $\bar{\Xi}^{+}$, $\Omega^{-}$, $\bar{\Omega}^{+}$) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39 and 62.4 GeV are presented. The measurements were done at mid-rapidity using the Time Projection Chamber and the Time-of-Flight detectors of the STAR experiment during the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. A significant difference in the $v_{2}$ values for particles and the corresponding anti-particles was observed at all transverse momenta for the first time. The difference increases with decreasing center-of-mass energy, $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ (or increasing baryon chemical potential, $\mu_{B}$) and is larger for the baryons as compared to the mesons. This implies that particles and anti-particles are no longer consistent with the universal number-of-constituent quark (NCQ) scaling of $v_{2}$ that was observed at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV. However, for the group of particles NCQ scaling at $(m_{T}-m_{0})/n_{q}>$ 0.4 GeV/$c^{2}$ is not violated within $\pm$10%. The $v_{2}$ values for $\phi$ mesons at 7.7 and 11.5 GeV are approximately two standard deviations from the trend defined by the other hadrons at the highest measured $p_{T}$ values.

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Bulk Properties of the Medium Produced in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions from the Beam Energy Scan Program

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 96 (2017) 044904, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510593 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76977

We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV using identified hadrons ($\pi^\pm$, $K^\pm$, $p$ and $\bar{p}$) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity ($|y|<$0.1) results for multiplicity densities $dN/dy$, average transverse momenta $\langle p_T \rangle$ and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed in heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of energy (or baryon chemical potential) at RHIC.

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Measurement of the $^3_{\Lambda}$H lifetime in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, Joseph ; Adkins, Kevin ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 97 (2018) 054909, 2018.
Inspire Record 1628155 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102407

A precise measurement of the hypertriton lifetime is presented. In this letter, the mesonic decay modes $\mathrm{{^3_\Lambda}H \rightarrow ^3He + \pi^-}$ and $\mathrm{{^3_\Lambda}H \rightarrow d + p + \pi^-}$ are used to reconstruct the hypertriton from Au+Au collision data collected by the STAR collaboration at RHIC. A minimum $\chi^2$ estimation is used to determine the lifetime of $\tau = 142^{+24}_{-21}\,{\rm (stat.)} {\pm} 31\,{\rm (syst.)}$ ps. This lifetime is about 50\% shorter than the lifetime $\tau = 263\pm2$ ps of a free $\Lambda$, indicating strong hyperon-nucleon interaction in the hypernucleus system. The branching ratios of the mesonic decay channels are also determined to satisfy B.R.$_{(^3{\rm He}+\pi^-)}/$(B.R.$_{(^3{\rm He}+\pi^-)}+$B.R.$_{(d+p+\pi^-)})$ = $0.32\rm{\pm}0.05\,{\rm (stat.)}\pm 0.08\,{\rm (syst.)}$. Our ratio result favors the assignment $J(\mathrm{^{3}_{\Lambda}H})$ = $\frac{1}{2}$ over $J(\mathrm{^{3}_{\Lambda}H})$ = $\frac{3}{2}$. These measurements will help to constrain models of hyperon-baryon interactions.

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Version 2
Strange hadron production in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$7.7 , 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 034909, 2020.
Inspire Record 1738953 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.94313

We present STAR measurements of strange hadron ($\mathrm{K}^{0}_{\mathrm S}$, $\Lambda$, $\overline{\Lambda}$, $\Xi^-$, $\overline{\Xi}^+$, $\Omega^-$, $\overline{\Omega}^+$, and $\phi$) production at mid-rapidity ($|y| < 0.5$) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}$ = 7.7 - 39 GeV from the Beam Energy Scan Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Transverse momentum spectra, averaged transverse mass, and the overall integrated yields of these strange hadrons are presented versus the centrality and collision energy. Antibaryon-to-baryon ratios ($\overline{\Lambda}$/$\Lambda$, $\overline{\Xi}^+$/$\Xi^-$, $\overline{\Omega}^+$/$\Omega^-$) are presented as well, and used to test a thermal statistical model and to extract the temperature normalized strangeness and baryon chemical potentials at hadronic freeze-out ($\mu_{B}/T_{\rm ch}$ and $\mu_{S}/T_{\rm ch}$) in central collisions. Strange baryon-to-pion ratios are compared to various model predictions in central collisions for all energies. The nuclear modification factors ($R_{\textrm{CP}}$) and antibaryon-to-meson ratios as a function of transverse momentum are presented for all collision energies. The $\mathrm{K}^{0}_{\mathrm S}$ $R_{\textrm{CP}}$ shows no suppression for $p_{\rm T}$ up to 3.5 $\mathrm{GeV} / c$ at energies of 7.7 and 11.5 GeV. The $\overline{\Lambda}$/$\mathrm{K}^{0}_{\mathrm S}$ ratio also shows baryon-to-meson enhancement at intermediate $p_{\rm T}$ ($\approx$2.5 $\mathrm{GeV} / c$) in central collisions at energies above 19.6 GeV. Both observations suggest that there is likely a change of the underlying strange quark dynamics at collision energies below 19.6 GeV.

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Evidence from d + Au measurements for final state suppression of high p(T) hadrons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adams, J. ; Adler, C. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 91 (2003) 072304, 2003.
Inspire Record 621394 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98576

We report measurements of single-particle inclusive spectra and two-particle azimuthal distributions of charged hadrons at high transverse momentum (high $p_T$) in minimum bias and central d+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV. The inclusive yield is enhanced in d+Au collisions relative to binary-scaled p+p collisions, while the two-particle azimuthal distributions are very similar to those observed in p+p collisions. These results demonstrate that the strong suppression of the inclusive yield and back-to-back correlations at high $p_T$ previously observed in central Au+Au collisions are due to final-state interactions with the dense medium generated in such collisions.

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