Double differential K+cross sections have been measured in p+C collisions at 1.2, 1.5 and 2.5 GeV beam energy and in p+Pb collisions at 1.2 and 1.5 GeV. The K+ spectrum taken at 2.5 GeV can be reproduced quantitatively by a model calculation which takes into account first chance proton-nucleon collisions and internal momentum with energy distribution of nucleons according to the spectral function. At 1.2 and 1.5 GeV beam energy the K+ data excess significantly the model predictions for first chance collisions. When taking secondary processes into account the results of the calculations are in much better agreement with the data.
The excitation of theΔ resonance is observed in proton collisions on C, Nb and Pb targets at 0.8 and 1.6 GeV incident energies. The mass E0 and widthΓ of the resonance are determined from the invariant mass spectra of correlated (p, π±)-pairs in the final state of the collision: The mass E0 is smaller than that of the free resonance, however by comparing to intra-nuclear cascade calculations, this reduction is traced back to the effects of Fermi motion, NN scattering and pion reabsorption in nuclear matter.
The production of π±,K±,p has been measured in p+Be and p+Au collisions for comparison with central Si+Au collisions. The inverse slope parameters T0 obtained by an exponential fit to the invariant cross sections in transverse mass are found to be, T0p,K+,ππ∼140–160 MeV in p+A collisions, whereas in central Si+Au collisions, T0p,K+∼200–220 MeV >T0ππ∼140–160 MeV at midrapidity. The π± and K+ distributions are shifted backwards in p+Au compared with p+Be. A gradual increase of (dn/dy)K+ per projectile nucleon is observed from p+Be to p+Au to central Si+Au collisions, while pions show no significant increase.
Recently, highly relativistic Au beams have become available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. Inclusive production cross sections for composite particles, d, t, He3, and He4, in 11.5A GeV/c Au+Pt collisions have been measured using a beam line spectrometer. For comparison, composite particle production was also measured in Si+Pt and p+Pt collisions at similar beam momenta per nucleon (14.6A GeV/c and 12.9 GeV/c, respectively). The projectile dependence of the production cross section for each composite particle has been fitted to Aprojα. The parameter α can be described by a single function of the mass number and the momentum per nucleon of the produced particle. Additionally, the data are well described by momentum-space coalescence. Comparisons with similar analysis of Bevalac A+A data are made. The coalescence radii extracted from momentum-space coalescence fits are used to determine reaction volumes (‘‘source size’’) within the context of the Sato-Yazaki model.
Inclusive cross sections for production of π+, π−, p, d, H3, He3, and He4 have been measured at laboratory angles from 10° to 145° in nuclear collisions of Ne + Naf, Ne + Cu, and Ne + Pb at 400 MeV/nucleon, C + C, C + Pb, Ne + NaF, Ne + Cu, Ne + Pb, Ar + KCl, and Ar + Pb at 800 MeV/nucleon, and Ne + NaF and Ne + Pb at 2.1 GeV/nucleon. The production of light fragments in proton induced collisions at beam energies of 800 MeV and 2.1 GeV has also been measured in order to allow us to compare these processes. For equal-mass nuclear collisions the total integrated yields of nuclear charges are well explained by a simple participant-spectator model. For 800 MeV/nucleon beams the energy spectra of protons at c.m. 90° are characterized by a "shoulder-arm" type of spectrum shape with an exponential falloff at high energies, whereas those of pions are of a simple exponential type. The inverse of the exponential slope, E0, for protons is systematically larger than that for pions. This value of E0 is larger for heavier-mass projectiles and targets. It also increases monotonically with the beam energy. The angular anisotropy of protons is larger than that of pions. The yield ratio of π− to total nuclear charge goes up with the beam energy, whereas the yields of composite fragments decrease. The ratio of low-energy π− to π+, as well as that of H3 to He3, is larger than the neutron to proton ratio of the system. The spectrum shape of the composite fragments with mass number A is explained very well by the Ath power of the observed proton spectra. The sizes of the interaction region are evaluated from the observed coalescence coefficients. The radius obtained is typically 3-4 fm. The yield ratio of composite fragments to protons strongly depends on the projectile and target masses and the beam energy, but not on the emission angle of the fragments. These results are compared with currently available theoretical models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ne + NaF, Ne + Cu, Ne + Pb, EA=400 MeV/nucleon; C + C, C + Pb, Ne + NaF, Ne + Cu, Ne + Pb, Ar + KCl, Ar + Pb, EA=800 MeV/nucleon; Ne + NaF, Ne + Pb, EA=2100 MeV/nucleon; p + C, p+ NaF, p + KCl, p + Cu, p + Pb, E=800 MeV; p + C, p + NaF, p + KCl, p + Cu, p + Pb, E=2100 MeV; measured σ(p,θ) for π+, π−, p, d, H3, He3, and He4.
We have measured the inclusive cross-section as a function of missing energy, due to the production of neutrinos or new weakly interacting neutral particles in 450 GeV/c proton-nucleus collisions, using calorimetric measurements of visible event energy. Upper limits are placed on the production of new particles as a function of their energy. These upper limits are typically an order
The collisions ofp,2H,4He and C with carbon and tantalum nuclei at 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon as well as the collisionsp-C andp-Ta at 10 GeV/c from 2-m propane bubble chamber have been studied. New results on nuclear stopping have been obtained from the examination of proton rapidity distributions and average rapidity of leading protons for collisions of various degree of centrality: our study points out that a proton projectile is fully stopped in the centralp-Ta collisions at 4.2 GeV/c but only partly stopped at 10 Gev/c. The proton multiplicity in the centralp-Ta collisions at 10 GeV/c can be described by the binomial distribution,P(n), which expresses the probability that the projectile meetsn protons among the nucleons being along the diameter of a target nucleus.
The inclusive cross sections, measured up to large values of effective mass (≡q22ν), are well fitted by dσd3p=Bxexp(−αxp22mx). Values of Bx and αx are given for Be, C, Cu, and Ta at the incident proton energy of 600 MeV and for Ag, Ta, and Pt at 800 MeV. Extremely large dp and tp ratios and large A and q2 dependences of the relative cross sections are observed.