Detailed measurements of the production of charged π mesons in proton-proton collisions are reported. The observed results are compared with the "isobar" and "one-pion exchange" models and for single production are in agreement if only the "resonant" part of the π−p cross section is used and if the angular distribution cos16θ is introduced for the production of the N1* isobar. The effects of higher resonances are also considered.
The excitation of theΔ resonance is observed in proton collisions on C, Nb and Pb targets at 0.8 and 1.6 GeV incident energies. The mass E0 and widthΓ of the resonance are determined from the invariant mass spectra of correlated (p, π±)-pairs in the final state of the collision: The mass E0 is smaller than that of the free resonance, however by comparing to intra-nuclear cascade calculations, this reduction is traced back to the effects of Fermi motion, NN scattering and pion reabsorption in nuclear matter.
New experimental data on antiproton production by carbon and deutron ions on copper and carbon nuclei at 3.65 GeV/nucleon and by proton at 3.65–8.1 GeV incident energy were obtained. Production angle is 24° and antiproton momentum is 0.8 GeV/c in the laboratory system.
The production of π±,K±,p has been measured in p+Be and p+Au collisions for comparison with central Si+Au collisions. The inverse slope parameters T0 obtained by an exponential fit to the invariant cross sections in transverse mass are found to be, T0p,K+,ππ∼140–160 MeV in p+A collisions, whereas in central Si+Au collisions, T0p,K+∼200–220 MeV >T0ππ∼140–160 MeV at midrapidity. The π± and K+ distributions are shifted backwards in p+Au compared with p+Be. A gradual increase of (dn/dy)K+ per projectile nucleon is observed from p+Be to p+Au to central Si+Au collisions, while pions show no significant increase.
Antiproton production cross-sections have been measured for p+C, C+C, C+Cu and C+Pb collisions at 3.65 GeV/nucleon.\(\bar p\) laboratory momentum and angle are 0.8 GeV/c and 24°. The target mass dependence parameter is found to be 0.43±0.1. A strong increase in antiproton yield is observed from p+C, d+C to C+C collisions. Projectile mass parameter is 1.2±0.2 for d+C to C+C. The construction and calibration of APAKI, an annihilation detector for\(\bar p\) identification, are also described.
Inclusive cross sections for production of π+, π−, p, d, H3, He3, and He4 have been measured at laboratory angles from 10° to 145° in nuclear collisions of Ne + Naf, Ne + Cu, and Ne + Pb at 400 MeV/nucleon, C + C, C + Pb, Ne + NaF, Ne + Cu, Ne + Pb, Ar + KCl, and Ar + Pb at 800 MeV/nucleon, and Ne + NaF and Ne + Pb at 2.1 GeV/nucleon. The production of light fragments in proton induced collisions at beam energies of 800 MeV and 2.1 GeV has also been measured in order to allow us to compare these processes. For equal-mass nuclear collisions the total integrated yields of nuclear charges are well explained by a simple participant-spectator model. For 800 MeV/nucleon beams the energy spectra of protons at c.m. 90° are characterized by a "shoulder-arm" type of spectrum shape with an exponential falloff at high energies, whereas those of pions are of a simple exponential type. The inverse of the exponential slope, E0, for protons is systematically larger than that for pions. This value of E0 is larger for heavier-mass projectiles and targets. It also increases monotonically with the beam energy. The angular anisotropy of protons is larger than that of pions. The yield ratio of π− to total nuclear charge goes up with the beam energy, whereas the yields of composite fragments decrease. The ratio of low-energy π− to π+, as well as that of H3 to He3, is larger than the neutron to proton ratio of the system. The spectrum shape of the composite fragments with mass number A is explained very well by the Ath power of the observed proton spectra. The sizes of the interaction region are evaluated from the observed coalescence coefficients. The radius obtained is typically 3-4 fm. The yield ratio of composite fragments to protons strongly depends on the projectile and target masses and the beam energy, but not on the emission angle of the fragments. These results are compared with currently available theoretical models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ne + NaF, Ne + Cu, Ne + Pb, EA=400 MeV/nucleon; C + C, C + Pb, Ne + NaF, Ne + Cu, Ne + Pb, Ar + KCl, Ar + Pb, EA=800 MeV/nucleon; Ne + NaF, Ne + Pb, EA=2100 MeV/nucleon; p + C, p+ NaF, p + KCl, p + Cu, p + Pb, E=800 MeV; p + C, p + NaF, p + KCl, p + Cu, p + Pb, E=2100 MeV; measured σ(p,θ) for π+, π−, p, d, H3, He3, and He4.