Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 765 (2017) 193-220, 2017.
Inspire Record 1471287 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76506

Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 5, 7, and 13 TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0 inverse picobarn (5 TeV), 6.2 inverse picobarns (7 TeV), and 0.7 inverse picobarns (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order (v[2]) and third-order (v[3]) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v[2] of K0 short and Lambda/anti-Lambda particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v[2] values of charged hadrons (mostly pions), K0 short, and Lambda/anti-Lambda, with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pt of about 2 GeV/c. For 13 TeV data, the v[2] signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. These observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.

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Hadron production in nucleon-nucleon collisions at 200-GeV/c: A Compilation

Gazdzicki, M. ; Hansen, O. ;
Nucl.Phys.A 528 (1991) 754-770, 1991.
Inspire Record 323125 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.36760

Data on stable hadron production in p + p and p + n interactions at 200 GeV/ c are reviewed. Methods to construct missing data in the p + p, p + n, and n + n interactions are derived from charge symmetry and charge, baryon and strangeness conservation, and used to yield nucleon-nucleon interaction results. These may be useful for evaluating nucleus-nucleus collision measurements in terms of enhancements and suppressions. Parameterizations of p t 2 and rapidity distributions are presented to provide yields in acceptance cuts for comparisons to nucleus-nucleus data. As an example the derived nucleon-nucleon multiplicities are reduced to the acceptances of the NA-35 CERN S + S experiment.

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Enhanced production of multi-strange hadrons in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Nature Phys. 13 (2017) 535-539, 2017.
Inspire Record 1471838 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77284

At sufficiently high temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a phase in which quarks and gluons are not confined: the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) [1]. Such an extreme state of strongly-interacting QCD (Quantum Chromo-Dynamics) matter is produced in the laboratory with high-energy collisions of heavy nuclei, where an enhanced production of strange hadrons is observed [2-6]. Strangeness enhancement, originally proposed as a signature of QGP formation in nuclear collisions [7], is more pronounced for multi-strange baryons. Several effects typical of heavy-ion phenomenology have been observed in high-multiplicity proton-proton (pp) collisions [8,9]. Yet, enhanced production of multi-strange particles has not been reported so far. Here we present the first observation of strangeness enhancement in high-multiplicity pp collisions. We find that the integrated yields of strange and multi-strange particles relative to pions increases significantly with the event charged-particle multiplicity. The measurements are in remarkable agreement with p-Pb collision results [10,11] indicating that the phenomenon is related to the final system created in the collision. In high-multiplicity events strangeness production reaches values similar to those observed in Pb-Pb collisions, where a QGP is formed.

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Multiplicity Distributions in $p \alpha$ and $\alpha \alpha$ Collisions in the {CERN} {ISR}

The Axial Field Spectrometer collaboration Akesson, T. ; Albrow, M.G. ; Almehed, S. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 119 (1982) 464, 1982.
Inspire Record 179518 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.6665

Measurements of charged particle multiplicity distributions in the central rapidity region in p-p and p-α, and α-α collisions are reported. They are better fitted to the “wounded nucleon” than to the “gluon string” model. The average transverse momenta, for all three reactions, are identical (and almost independent of multiplicity) up to very high multiplicities.

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Jet properties in PbPb and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} =$ 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
JHEP 05 (2018) 006, 2018.
Inspire Record 1658057 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.83196

Modifications of the properties of jets in PbPb collisions, relative to those in pp collisions, are studied at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} =$ 5.02 TeV via correlations of charged particles with the jet axis in relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta \eta$), relative azimuth ($\Delta \phi$), and relative angular distance from the jet axis $\Delta \mathrm{r} = \sqrt{{(\Delta\eta)^{2}+(\Delta\phi)^{2}}}$. This analysis uses data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 404 $\mu$b$^{-1}$ and 27.4 pb$^{-1}$ for PbPb and pp collisions, respectively. Charged particle number densities, jet fragmentation functions, and jet shapes are presented as a function of PbPb collision centrality and charged-particle track transverse momentum, providing a differential description of jet modifications due to interactions with the quark-gluon plasma.

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Charged-particle multiplicities in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 to 8 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 33, 2017.
Inspire Record 1394854 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77011

A detailed study of pseudorapidity densities and multiplicity distributions of primary charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions, at $\sqrt{s} =$ 0.9, 2.36, 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV, in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta|<2$, was carried out using the ALICE detector. Measurements were obtained for three event classes: inelastic, non-single diffractive and events with at least one charged particle in the pseudorapidity interval $|\eta|<1$. The use of an improved track-counting algorithm combined with ALICE's measurements of diffractive processes allows a higher precision compared to our previous publications. A KNO scaling study was performed in the pseudorapidity intervals $|\eta|<$ 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The data are compared to other experimental results and to models as implemented in Monte Carlo event generators PHOJET and recent tunes of PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8 and EPOS.

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Observation of correlated azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics in pp and pPb collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 120 (2018) 092301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1626103 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.79667

The azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) in 8.16 TeV pPb data are extracted via long-range two-particle correlations as a function of event multiplicity and compared to corresponding results in pp and PbPb collisions. Using a four-particle cumulant technique, $v_n$ correlations are measured for the first time in pp and pPb collisions. The $v_2$ and $v_4$ coefficients are found to be positively correlated in all collision systems. For high multiplicity pPb collisions an anticorrelation of $v_2$ and $v_3$ is observed, with a similar correlation strength as in PbPb data at the same multiplicity. The new correlation results strengthen the case for a common origin of the collectivity seen in pPb and PbPb collisions in the measured multiplicity range.

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Large Transverse Momentum Particle Production in $\alpha \alpha$ and $p p$ Collisions at the {CERN} {ISR}

The Axial Field Spectrometer collaboration Akesson, T. ; Albrow, M.G. ; Almehed, S. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 209 (1982) 309-320, 1982.
Inspire Record 178882 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.34016

The production of charged hadrons with high p T in αα collisions at √ s =126 GeV and pp collisions at √ s =31 and 63 GeV is compared, and the structure of the events associated with the high- p T particles is studied. The probability of finding associated particles close to the trigger particle increases strongly between √ s =31 and 63 GeV for pp collisions. For p T >2.5GeV/ c the αα/pp cross section ratio at the same energy per nucleon is measured to be 18.7 ± 2.0, to be compared with A 2 = 16, and a higher associated multiplicity is observed for αα.

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Measurement of long-range near-side two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 172302, 2016.
Inspire Record 1397173 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73192

Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270 inverse nanobarns. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (abs(eta) < 2.4) and over the full azimuth (phi) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (pt). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (abs(Delta eta) > 2.0), near-side (Delta phi approximately 0) structure emerges in the two-particle Delta eta-Delta phi correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0 < pt < 2.0 GeV/c and an approximately linear increase with the charged particle multiplicity, with an overall correlation strength similar to that found in earlier pp data at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities of N[ch] approximately 180, a region so far unexplored in pp collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

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Study of high-pT charged particle suppression in PbPb compared to pp collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 72 (2012) 1945, 2012.
Inspire Record 1088823 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58980

The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles have been measured in pp and PbPb collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV by the CMS experiment at the LHC. In the transverse momentum range pt = 5-10 GeV/c, the charged particle yield in the most central PbPb collisions is suppressed by up to a factor of 5 compared to the pp yield scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions. At higher pt, this suppression is significantly reduced, approaching roughly a factor of 2 for particles with pt in the range pt=40-100 GeV/c.

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