Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B765 (2017) 193-220, 2017.
Inspire Record 1471287 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76506

Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at s=5,7, and 13TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0pb−1 (5 TeV), 6.2pb−1 (7 TeV), and 0.7pb−1 (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order ( v2 ) and third-order ( v3 ) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v2 of KS0 and Λ/Λ‾ particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v2 values of charged hadrons (mostly pions), KS0 , and Λ/Λ‾ , with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pT≈2GeV/c . For 13 TeV data, the v2 signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. These observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.

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Charged Particle Multiplicity Distributions in p p Collisions at ISR Energies

The Aachen-CERN-Heidelberg-Munich collaboration Thome, W. ; Eggert, K. ; Giboni, K. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys. B129 (1977) 365, 1977.
Inspire Record 120863 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.55890
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Hadron production in nucleon-nucleon collisions at 200-GeV/c: A Compilation

Gazdzicki, M. ; Hansen, O. ;
Nucl.Phys. A528 (1991) 754-770, 1991.
Inspire Record 323125 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.36760
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Multiplicity Distributions in $p \alpha$ and $\alpha \alpha$ Collisions in the {CERN} {ISR}

The Axial Field Spectrometer collaboration Akesson, T. ; Albrow, M.G. ; Almehed, S. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B119 (1982) 464, 1982.
Inspire Record 179518 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.6665
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Net-Charge Fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 152301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1123802 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60476
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Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=900$ GeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K ; Abel, N ; Abeysekara, U ; et al.
Phys.Rev. D82 (2010) 052001, 2010.
Inspire Record 860477 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.55128

We report on the measurement of two-pion correlation functions from pp collisions at sqrt(s)=900 GeV performed by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Our analysis shows an increase of the HBT radius with increasing event multiplicity, in line with other measurements done in particle- and nuclear collisions. Conversely, the strong decrease of the radius with increasing transverse momentum, as observed at RHIC and at Tevatron, is not manifest in our data.

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Multiplicity dependence of two-particle azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
JHEP 1309 (2013) 049, 2013.
Inspire Record 1241570 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62319
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Measurement of the forward energy flow in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, R ; Abellan Beteta, C ; Adametz, A ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C73 (2013) 2421, 2013.
Inspire Record 1208105 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61691

The energy flow created in pp collisions at is studied within the pseudorapidity range 1.9<η<4.9 with data collected by the LHCb experiment. The measurements are performed for inclusive minimum-bias interactions, hard scattering processes and events with an enhanced or suppressed diffractive contribution. The results are compared to predictions given by Pythia-based and cosmic-ray event generators, which provide different models of soft hadronic interactions.

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Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with ALICE

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C88 (2013) 044909, 2013.
Inspire Record 1215085 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66916

This publication describes the methods used to measure the centrality of inelastic Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair with ALICE. The centrality is a key parameter in the study of the properties of QCD matter at extreme temperature and energy density, because it is directly related to the initial overlap region of the colliding nuclei. Geometrical properties of the collision, such as the number of participating nucleons and the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, are deduced from a Glauber model with a sharp impact parameter selection and shown to be consistent with those extracted from the data. The centrality determination provides a tool to compare ALICE measurements with those of other experiments and with theoretical calculations.

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Charged-particle multiplicities in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ to 8 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C77 (2017) 33, 2017.
Inspire Record 1394854 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77011

A detailed study of pseudorapidity densities and multiplicity distributions of primary charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions, at $\sqrt{s} =$ 0.9, 2.36, 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV, in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta|<2$, was carried out using the ALICE detector. Measurements were obtained for three event classes: inelastic, non-single diffractive and events with at least one charged particle in the pseudorapidity interval $|\eta|<1$. The use of an improved track-counting algorithm combined with ALICE's measurements of diffractive processes allows a higher precision compared to our previous publications. A KNO scaling study was performed in the pseudorapidity intervals $|\eta|<$ 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The data are compared to other experimental results and to models as implemented in Monte Carlo event generators PHOJET and recent tunes of PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8 and EPOS.

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Charged particle transverse momentum spectra in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ and 7 TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
JHEP 1108 (2011) 086, 2011.
Inspire Record 896764 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.57523
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Forward-backward multiplicity correlations in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{s} $ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
JHEP 1505 (2015) 097, 2015.
Inspire Record 1342496 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68880

The strength of forward-backward (FB) multiplicity correlations is measured by the ALICE detector in proton-proton (pp) collisions at $ \sqrt{s} $ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|η| < 0.8) for the transverse momentum p$_{T}$ > 0.3 GeV/c. Two separate pseudorapidity windows of width (δη) ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 are chosen symmetrically around η = 0. The multiplicity correlation strength (b$_{corr}$) is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity gap (η$_{gap}$) between the two windows as well as the width of these windows. The correlation strength is found to decrease with increasing η$_{gap}$ and shows a non-linear increase with δη. A sizable increase of the correlation strength with the collision energy, which cannot be explained exclusively by the increase of the mean multiplicity inside the windows, is observed. The correlation coefficient is also measured for multiplicities in different configurations of two azimuthal sectors selected within the symmetric FB η-windows. Two different contributions, the short-range (SR) and the long-range (LR), are observed. The energy dependence of b$_{corr}$ is found to be weak for the SR component while it is strong for the LR component. Moreover, the correlation coefficient is studied for particles belonging to various transverse momentum intervals chosen to have the same mean multiplicity. Both SR and LR contributions to b$_{corr}$ are found to increase with p$_{T}$ in this case. Results are compared to PYTHIA and PHOJET event generators and to a string-based phenomenological model. The observed dependencies of b$_{corr}$ add new constraints on phenomenological models.

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Observation of correlated azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics in pp and pPb collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
2017.
Inspire Record 1626103 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.79667

The azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) in 8.16 TeV pPb data are extracted via long-range two-particle correlations as a function of event multiplicity and compared to corresponding results in pp and PbPb collisions. Using a four-particle cumulant technique, $v_n$ correlations are measured for the first time in pp and pPb collisions. The $v_2$ and $v_4$ coefficients are found to be positively correlated in all collision systems. For high multiplicity pPb collisions an anticorrelation of $v_2$ and $v_3$ is observed, with a similar correlation strength as in PbPb data at the same multiplicity. The new correlation results strengthen the case for a common origin of the collectivity seen in pPb and PbPb collisions in the measured multiplicity range.

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Large Transverse Momentum Particle Production in $\alpha \alpha$ and $p p$ Collisions at the {CERN} {ISR}

The Axial Field Spectrometer collaboration Akesson, T. ; Albrow, M.G. ; Almehed, S. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys. B209 (1982) 309-320, 1982.
Inspire Record 178882 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.34016
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Energy Dependence of the Transverse Momentum Distributions of Charged Particles in pp Collisions Measured by ALICE

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C73 (2013) 2662, 2013.
Inspire Record 1241422 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61787
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Transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M. ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 105 (2010) 022002, 2010.
Inspire Record 855299 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.56006

Charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV are measured with the inner tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC. The charged-hadron yield is obtained by counting the number of reconstructed hits, hit-pairs, and fully reconstructed charged-particle tracks. The combination of the three methods gives a charged-particle multiplicity per unit of pseudorapidity, dN(charged)/d(eta), for |eta| < 0.5, of 5.78 +/- 0.01 (stat) +/- 0.23 (syst) for non-single-diffractive events, higher than predicted by commonly used models. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from sqrt(s) = 0.9 to 7 TeV is 66.1% +/- 1.0% (stat) +/- 4.2% (syst). The mean transverse momentum is measured to be 0.545 +/- 0.005 (stat) +/- 0.015 (syst) GeV/c. The results are compared with similar measurements at lower energies.

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Jet properties in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\;\mathrm{N}}}=5.02 $ TeV

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
JHEP 1805 (2018) 006, 2018.
Inspire Record 1658057 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.83196

Modifications of the properties of jets in PbPb collisions, relative to those in pp collisions, are studied at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\,\mathrm{N}}}=5.02 $ TeV via correlations of charged particles with the jet axis in relative pseudorapidity (Δη), relative azimuth (Δϕ), and relative angular distance from the jet axis $ \varDelta \mathrm{r}=\sqrt{{\left(\varDelta \eta \right)}^2+{\left(\varDelta \phi \right)}^2} $ . This analysis uses data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 404 μb$^{−1}$ and 27.4 pb$^{−1}$ for PbPb and pp collisions, respectively. Charged particle number densities, jet fragmentation functions, and jet shapes are presented as a function of PbPb collision centrality and charged-particle track transverse momentum, providing a differential description of jet modifications due to interactions with the quark-gluon plasma.

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Jet-Hadron Correlations in $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV $p+p$ and Central $Au+Au$ Collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 112 (2014) 122301, 2014.
Inspire Record 1221099 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.89880

Azimuthal angular correlations of charged hadrons with respect to the axis of a reconstructed (trigger) jet in Au+Au and p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}} = 200 \text{GeV}$ in STAR are presented. The trigger jet population in Au+Au collisions is biased towards jets that have not interacted with the medium, allowing easier matching of jet energies between Au+Au and p+p collisions while enhancing medium effects on the recoil jet. The associated hadron yield of the recoil jet is significantly suppressed at high transverse momentum ($p_{\text{T}}^{\text{assoc}}$) and enhanced at low $p_{\text{T}}^{\text{assoc}}$ in 0-20% central Au+Au collisions compared to p+p collisions, which is indicative of medium-induced parton energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

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Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with ALICE at LHC

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abel, N. ; Abeysekara, U. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C68 (2010) 345-354, 2010.
Inspire Record 852264 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.54795

The pseudorapidity density and multiplicity distribution of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the LHC, at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, were measured in the central pseudorapidity region |eta| < 1. Comparisons are made with previous measurements at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV and 2.36 TeV. At sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, for events with at least one charged particle in |eta| < 1, we obtain dNch/deta = 6.01 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.20 -0.12 (syst.). This corresponds to an increase of 57.6% +- 0.4% (stat.) +3.6 -1.8% (syst.) relative to collisions at 0.9 TeV, significantly higher than calculations from commonly used models. The multiplicity distribution at 7 TeV is described fairly well by the negative binomial distribution.

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Measurement of charged particle multiplicities in $pp$ collisions at ${\sqrt{s} =7}$TeV in the forward region

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, R. ; Abellan Beteta, C. ; Adeva, B. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C72 (2012) 1947, 2012.
Inspire Record 1082369 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65435

The charged particle production in proton-proton collisions is studied with the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of ${\sqrt{s} =7}$TeV in different intervals of pseudorapidity $\eta$. The charged particles are reconstructed close to the interaction region in the vertex detector, which provides high reconstruction efficiency in the $\eta$ ranges $-2.5&lt;\eta&lt;-2.0$ and $2.0&lt;\eta&lt;4.5$. The data were taken with a minimum bias trigger, only requiring one or more reconstructed tracks in the vertex detector. By selecting an event sample with at least one track with a transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c a hard QCD subsample is investigated. Several event generators are compared with the data; none are able to describe fully the multiplicity distributions or the charged particle density distribution as a function of $\eta$. In general, the models underestimate the charged particle production.

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Event-by-event mean ${p}_{\mathbf {T}}$ fluctuations in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C74 (2014) 3077, 2014.
Inspire Record 1307102 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66332

Event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum of charged particles produced in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV, and Pb–Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$   = 2.76 TeV are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the LHC. Dynamical fluctuations indicative of correlated particle emission are observed in all systems. The results in pp collisions show little dependence on collision energy. The Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and PHOJET are in qualitative agreement with the data. Peripheral Pb–Pb data exhibit a similar multiplicity dependence as that observed in pp. In central Pb–Pb, the results deviate from this trend, featuring a significant reduction of the fluctuation strength. The results in Pb–Pb are in qualitative agreement with previous measurements in Au–Au at lower collision energies and with expectations from models that incorporate collective phenomena.

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Pseudorapidity and transverse-momentum distributions of charged particles in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt s=$ 13 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B753 (2016) 319-329, 2016.
Inspire Record 1395253 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.70847

The pseudorapidity ( η ) and transverse-momentum ( pT ) distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions are measured at the centre-of-mass energy s=13 TeV . The pseudorapidity distribution in |η|<1.8 is reported for inelastic events and for events with at least one charged particle in |η|<1 . The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced in the pseudorapidity region |η|<0.5 is 5.31±0.18 and 6.46±0.19 for the two event classes, respectively. The transverse-momentum distribution of charged particles is measured in the range 0.15<pT<20 GeV/c and |η|<0.8 for events with at least one charged particle in |η|<1 . The evolution of the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles is also investigated as a function of event multiplicity. The results are compared with calculations from PYTHIA and EPOS Monte Carlo generators.

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Transverse momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ and 2.36 TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M. ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
JHEP 1002 (2010) 041, 2010.
Inspire Record 845323 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.54829

Measurements of inclusive charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions are presented for proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector during the LHC commissioning in December 2009. For non-single-diffractive interactions, the average charged-hadron transverse momentum is measured to be 0.46 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 0.9 TeV and 0.50 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 2.36 TeV, for pseudorapidities between -2.4 and +2.4. At these energies, the measured pseudorapidity densities in the central region, dN(charged)/d(eta) for |eta| < 0.5, are 3.48 +/- 0.02 (stat.) +/- 0.13 (syst.) and 4.47 +/- 0.04 (stat.) +/- 0.16 (syst.), respectively. The results at 0.9 TeV are in agreement with previous measurements and confirm the expectation of near equal hadron production in p-pbar and pp collisions. The results at 2.36 TeV represent the highest-energy measurements at a particle collider to date.

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Measurement of long-range near-side two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at $\sqrt s =$13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 172302, 2016.
Inspire Record 1397173 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73192

Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270  nb-1. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η|<2.4) and over the full azimuth (ϕ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (pT). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δη|>2.0), near-side (Δϕ≈0) structure emerges in the two-particle Δη–Δϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0<pT<2.0  GeV/c and an approximately linear increase with the charged particle multiplicity, with an overall correlation strength similar to that found in earlier pp data at s=7  TeV. The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities Nch∼180, a region so far unexplored in pp collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

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Multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B727 (2013) 371-380, 2013.
Inspire Record 1241423 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61692
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