Evidence for Collective Multiparticle Correlations in p-Pb Collisions

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 115 (2015) 012301, 2015.
Inspire Record 1345262 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.67530

The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, v2, are obtained in pPb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity (eta) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The pPb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 inverse nanobarns, were collected during the 2013 LHC pPb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at sqrt(s[NN])= 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5 inverse microbarns and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the pPb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and the Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the v2 coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the pPb and PbPb systems, the v2 values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data support the interpretation of a collective origin for the previously observed long-range (large Delta[eta]) correlations in both systems. The ratios of v2 values corresponding to correlations including different numbers of particles are compared to theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic behavior of a pPb system dominated by fluctuations in the positions of participant nucleons. These results provide new insights into the multi-particle dynamics of collision systems with a very small overlapping region.

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Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K ; Abelev, B ; Abrahantes Quintana, A ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 105 (2010) 252302, 2010.
Inspire Record 877822 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62277

We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|$\eta$|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2< $p_{\rm T}$< 5.0 GeV/$c$. The elliptic flow signal v$_2$, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 $\pm$ 0.002 (stat) $\pm$ 0.004 (syst) in the 40-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v$_2(p_{\rm T})$ reaches a maximum of 0.2 near $p_{\rm T}$ = 3 GeV/$c$. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.

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Net-Charge Fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 152301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1123802 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60476

We report the first measurement of the net-charge fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dynamical fluctuations per unit entropy are observed to decrease when going from peripheral to central collisions. An additional reduction in the amount of fluctuations is seen in comparison to the results from lower energies. We examine the dependence of fluctuations on the pseudorapidity interval, which may account for the dilution of fluctuations during the evolution of the system. We find that the fluctuations at LHC are smaller compared to the measurements at the Relativistic heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and as such, closer to what has been theoretically predicted for the formation of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

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Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with ALICE

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 88 (2013) 044909, 2013.
Inspire Record 1215085 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66916

This publication describes the methods used to measure the centrality of inelastic Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair with ALICE. The centrality is a key parameter in the study of the properties of QCD matter at extreme temperature and energy density, because it is directly related to the initial overlap region of the colliding nuclei. Geometrical properties of the collision, such as the number of participating nucleons and number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, are deduced from a Glauber model with a sharp impact parameter selection, and shown to be consistent with those extracted from the data. The centrality determination provides a tool to compare ALICE measurements with those of other experiments and with theoretical calculations.

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Measurement of charged jet suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, B. ; Adam, J. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
JHEP 03 (2014) 013, 2014.
Inspire Record 1263194 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62723

A measurement of the transverse momentum spectra of jets in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV is reported. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-$k_{\rm T}$ jet algorithm with jet resolution parameters $R$ of $0.2$ and $0.3$ in pseudo-rapidity $|\eta|<0.5$. The transverse momentum $p_{\rm T}$ of charged particles is measured down to $0.15$ GeV/$c$ which gives access to the low $p_{\rm T}$ fragments of the jet. Jets found in heavy-ion collisions are corrected event-by-event for average background density and on an inclusive basis (via unfolding) for residual background fluctuations and detector effects. A strong suppression of jet production in central events with respect to peripheral events is observed. The suppression is found to be similar to the suppression of charged hadrons, which suggests that substantial energy is radiated at angles larger than the jet resolution parameter $R=0.3$ considered in the analysis. The fragmentation bias introduced by selecting jets with a high $p_{\rm T}$ leading particle, which rejects jets with a soft fragmentation pattern, has a similar effect on the jet yield for central and peripheral events. The ratio of jet spectra with $R=0.2$ and $R=0.3$ is found to be similar in Pb-Pb and simulated PYTHIA pp events, indicating no strong broadening of the radial jet structure in the reconstructed jets with $R<0.3$.

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Evidence for transverse momentum and pseudorapidity dependent event plane fluctuations in PbPb and pPb collisions

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 034911, 2015.
Inspire Record 1347386 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.67151

A systematic study of the factorization of long-range azimuthal two-particle correlations into a product of single-particle anisotropies is presented as a function of pt and eta of both particles, and as a function of the particle multiplicity in PbPb and pPb collisions. The data were taken with the CMS detector for PbPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV, covering a very wide range of multiplicity. Factorization is observed to be broken as a function of both particle pt and eta. When measured with particles of different pt, the magnitude of the factorization breakdown for the second Fourier harmonic reaches 20% for very central PbPb collisions but decreases rapidly as the multiplicity decreases. The data are consistent with viscous hydrodynamic predictions, which suggest that the effect of factorization breaking is mainly sensitive to the initial-state conditions rather than to the transport properties (e.g., shear viscosity) of the medium. The factorization breakdown is also computed with particles of different eta. The effect is found to be weakest for mid-central PbPb events but becomes larger for more central or peripheral PbPb collisions, and also for very high-multiplicity pPb collisions. The eta-dependent factorization data provide new insights to the longitudinal evolution of the medium formed in heavy ion collisions.

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Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 90 (2014) 054901, 2014.
Inspire Record 1300038 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65710

Measurements of multi-particle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flow-like, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions. However, when a $|\Delta \eta|$ gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high-multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p-Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of $v_{2}\{4\}$ to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find $v_{2}\{4\} \simeq v_{2}\{6\}\neq 0$ which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the $v_{2}$ distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in p-Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a $|\Delta\eta| > 1.4$ gap is placed.

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Jet properties in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\;\mathrm{N}}}=5.02 $ TeV

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
JHEP 05 (2018) 006, 2018.
Inspire Record 1658057 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.83196

Modifications of the properties of jets in PbPb collisions, relative to those in pp collisions, are studied at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} =$ 5.02 TeV via correlations of charged particles with the jet axis in relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta \eta$), relative azimuth ($\Delta \phi$), and relative angular distance from the jet axis $\Delta \mathrm{r} = \sqrt{{(\Delta\eta)^{2}+(\Delta\phi)^{2}}}$. This analysis uses data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 404 $\mu$b$^{-1}$ and 27.4 pb$^{-1}$ for PbPb and pp collisions, respectively. Charged particle number densities, jet fragmentation functions, and jet shapes are presented as a function of PbPb collision centrality and charged-particle track transverse momentum, providing a differential description of jet modifications due to interactions with the quark-gluon plasma.

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Observation of Correlated Azimuthal Anisotropy Fourier Harmonics in $pp$ and $p+Pb$ Collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 120 (2018) 092301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1626103 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.79667

The azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) in 8.16 TeV pPb data are extracted via long-range two-particle correlations as a function of event multiplicity and compared to corresponding results in pp and PbPb collisions. Using a four-particle cumulant technique, $v_n$ correlations are measured for the first time in pp and pPb collisions. The $v_2$ and $v_4$ coefficients are found to be positively correlated in all collision systems. For high multiplicity pPb collisions an anticorrelation of $v_2$ and $v_3$ is observed, with a similar correlation strength as in PbPb data at the same multiplicity. The new correlation results strengthen the case for a common origin of the collectivity seen in pPb and PbPb collisions in the measured multiplicity range.

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Version 2
Anisotropic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 132302, 2016.
Inspire Record 1419244 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72886

We report the first results of elliptic ($v_2$), triangular ($v_3$) and quadrangular flow ($v_4$) of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the central pseudorapidity region $|\eta|<0.8$ and for the transverse momentum range $0.2<p_{\rm T}<5$ GeV/$c$. The anisotropic flow is measured using two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap greater than one unit and with the multi-particle cumulant method. Compared to results from Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV, the anisotropic flow coefficients $v_{2}$, $v_{3}$ and $v_{4}$ are found to increase by ($3.0\pm0.6$)%, ($4.3\pm1.4$)% and ($10.2\pm3.8$)%, respectively, in the centrality range 0-50%. This increase can be attributed mostly to an increase of the average transverse momentum between the two energies. The measurements are found to be compatible with hydrodynamic model calculations. This comparison provides a unique opportunity to test the validity of the hydrodynamic picture and the power to further discriminate between various possibilities for the temperature dependence of shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the produced matter in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies.

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Jet-like correlations with neutral pion triggers in pp and central Pb–Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 763 (2016) 238-250, 2016.
Inspire Record 1483164 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.75246

We present measurements of two-particle correlations with neutral pion trigger particles of transverse momenta $8 < p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm trig} < 16~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ and associated charged particles of $0.5 < p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm assoc} < 10~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ versus the azimuthal angle difference $\Delta\varphi$ at midrapidity in pp and central Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV with ALICE. The new measurements exploit associated charged hadrons down to $0.5~\mathrm{GeV}/c$, which significantly extends our previous measurement that only used charged hadrons above $3~\mathrm{GeV}/c$. After subtracting the contributions of the flow background, $v_2$ to $v_5$, the per-trigger yields are extracted for $|\Delta\varphi|<0.7$ on the near and for $|\Delta\varphi-\pi| < 1.1$ on the away side. The ratio of per-trigger yields in Pb--Pb to those in pp collisions, $I_{\mathrm{AA}}$, is measured on the near and away side for the $0$--$10$\% most central Pb--Pb collisions. On the away side, the per-trigger yields in Pb--Pb are strongly suppressed to the level of $I_{\mathrm{AA}} \approx 0.6$ for $p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm assoc} > 3~\mathrm{GeV}/c$, while with decreasing momenta an enhancement develops reaching about $5$ at low $p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm assoc}$. On the near side, an enhancement of $I_{\mathrm{AA}}$ between $1.2$ at the highest to $1.8$ at the lowest $p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm assoc}$ is observed. The data are compared to parton-energy-loss predictions of the JEWEL and AMPT event generators, as well as to a perturbative QCD calculation with medium-modified fragmentation functions. All calculations qualitatively describe the away-side suppression at high $p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm assoc}$. Only AMPT captures the enhancement at low $p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm assoc}$, both on the near and away side. However, it also underpredicts $I_{\mathrm{AA}}$ above $5$ GeV/$c$, in particular on the near-side.

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Measurement of transverse energy at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 94 (2016) 034903, 2016.
Inspire Record 1427723 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73993

We report the transverse energy ($E_{\mathrm T}$) measured with ALICE at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}}$ = 2.76 TeV as a function of centrality. The transverse energy was measured using identified single particle tracks. The measurement was cross checked using the electromagnetic calorimeters and the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles previously reported by ALICE. The results are compared to theoretical models as well as to results from other experiments. The mean $E_{\mathrm T}$ per unit pseudorapidity ($\eta$), $\langle $d$E_{\mathrm T}/$d$\eta \rangle$, in 0-5% central collisions is 1737 $\pm$ 6(stat.) $\pm$ 97(sys.) GeV. We find a similar centrality dependence of the shape of $\langle $d$E_{\mathrm T}/$d$\eta \rangle$ as a function of the number of participating nucleons to that seen at lower energies. The growth in $\langle $d$E_{\mathrm T}/$d$\eta \rangle$ at the LHC ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}}$ exceeds extrapolations of low energy data. We observe a nearly linear scaling of $\langle $d$E_{\mathrm T}/$d$\eta \rangle$ with the number of quark participants. With the canonical assumption of a 1 fm/$c$ formation time, we estimate that the energy density in 0-5% central Pb-Pb collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}}$ = 2.76 TeV is 12.3 $\pm$ 1.0 GeV/fm$^3$\xspace and that the energy density at the most central 80 fm$^2$ of the collision is at least 21.5 $\pm$ 1.7 GeV/fm$^3$. This is roughly 2.3 times that observed in 0-5% central Au-Au collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}}$ = 200 GeV.

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Multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 727 (2013) 371-380, 2013.
Inspire Record 1241423 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61692

The average transverse momentum $\langle p_{\rm T}\rangle$ versus the charged-particle multiplicity $N_{\rm ch}$ was measured in p-Pb collisions at a collision energy per nucleon-nucleon pair $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV and in pp collisions at collision energies of $\sqrt{s}=0.9$, 2.76, and 7 TeV in the kinematic range $0.15<p_{\rm T}<10.0$ GeV/$c$ and $|\eta|<0.3$ with the ALICE apparatus at the LHC. These data are compared to results in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV at similar charged-particle multiplicities. In pp and p-Pb collisions, a strong increase of $\langle p_{\rm T}\rangle$ with $N_{\rm ch}$ is observed, which is much stronger than that measured in Pb-Pb collisions. For pp collisions, this could be attributed, within a model of hadronizing strings, to multiple-parton interactions and to a final-state color reconnection mechanism. The data in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions cannot be described by an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions and pose a challenge to most of the event generators.

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Higher harmonic anisotropic flow measurements of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abelev, B. ; Abrahantes Quintana, A. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 107 (2011) 032301, 2011.
Inspire Record 900651 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62026

We report on the first measurement of the triangular $v_3$, quadrangular $v_4$, and pentagonal $v_5$ charged particle flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We show that the triangular flow can be described in terms of the initial spatial anisotropy and its fluctuations, which provides strong constraints on its origin. In the most central events, where the elliptic flow $v_2$ and $v_3$ have similar magnitude, a double peaked structure in the two-particle azimuthal correlations is observed, which is often interpreted as a Mach cone response to fast partons. We show that this structure can be naturally explained from the measured anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients.

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Measurement of the elliptic anisotropy of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=2.76 TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 87 (2013) 014902, 2013.
Inspire Record 1107659 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58994

The anisotropy of the azimuthal distributions of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions with a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV is studied with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The elliptic anisotropy parameter defined as the second coefficient in a Fourier expansion of the particle invariant yields, is extracted using the event-plane method, two- and four-particle cumulants, and Lee--Yang zeros. The anisotropy is presented as a function of transverse momentum (pt), pseudorapidity (eta) over a broad kinematic range: 0.3 < pt < 20 GeV, abs(eta) < 2.4, and in 12 classes of collision centrality from 0 to 80%. The results are compared to those obtained at lower center-of-mass energies, and various scaling behaviors are examined. When scaled by the geometric eccentricity of the collision zone, the elliptic anisotropy is found to obey a universal scaling with the transverse particle density for different collision systems and center-of-mass energies.

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Measurement of event-plane correlations in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 90 (2014) 024905, 2014.
Inspire Record 1283339 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66137

A measurement of event-plane correlations involving two or three event planes of different order is presented as a function of centrality for 7 ub-1 Pb+Pb collision data at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Fourteen correlators are measured using a standard event-plane method and a scalar-product method, and the latter method is found to give a systematically larger correlation signal. Several different trends in the centrality dependence of these correlators are observed. These trends are not reproduced by predictions based on the Glauber model, which includes only the correlations from the collision geometry in the initial state. Calculations that include the final-state collective dynamics are able to describe qualitatively, and in some cases also quantitatively, the centrality dependence of the measured correlators. These observations suggest that both the fluctuations in the initial geometry and non-linear mixing between different harmonics in the final state are important for creating these correlations in momentum space.

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Version 2
Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in PbPb and pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\;\mathrm{N}}}=5.02 $ TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
JHEP 04 (2017) 039, 2017.
Inspire Record 1496050 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77101

The spectra of charged particles produced within the pseudorapidity window abs(eta) < 1 at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV are measured using 404 inverse microbarns of PbPb and 27.4 inverse picobarns of pp data collected by the CMS detector at the LHC in 2015. The spectra are presented over the transverse momentum ranges spanning 0.5 < pt < 400 GeV in pp and 0.7 < pt < 400 GeV in PbPb collisions. The corresponding nuclear modification factor, R[AA], is measured in bins of collision centrality. The R[AA] in the 5% most central collisions shows a maximal suppression by a factor of 7-8 in the pt region of 6-9 GeV. This dip is followed by an increase, which continues up to the highest pt measured, and approaches unity in the vicinity of pt = 200 GeV. The R[AA] is compared to theoretical predictions and earlier experimental results at lower collision energies. The newly measured pp spectrum is combined with the pPb spectrum previously published by the CMS Collaboration to construct the pPb nuclear modification factor, R[pA], up to 120 GeV. For pt > 20 GeV, R[pA] exhibits weak momentum dependence and shows a moderate enhancement above unity.

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Correlated event-by-event fluctuations of flow harmonics in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 117 (2016) 182301, 2016.
Inspire Record 1452590 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.74142

We report the measurements of correlations between event-by-event fluctuations of amplitudes of anisotropic flow harmonics in nucleus-nucleus collisions, obtained for the first time using a new analysis method based on multiparticle cumulants in mixed harmonics. This novel method is robust against systematic biases originating from non-flow effects and by construction any dependence on symmetry planes is eliminated. We demonstrate that correlations of flow harmonics exhibit a better sensitivity to medium properties than the individual flow harmonics. The new measurements are performed in Pb-Pb collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=2.76$ TeV by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The centrality dependence of correlation between event-by-event fluctuations of the elliptic, $v_2$, and quadrangular, $v_4$, flow harmonics, as well as of anti-correlation between $v_2$ and triangular, $v_3$, flow harmonics are presented. The results cover two different regimes of the initial state configurations: geometry-dominated (in mid-central collisions) and fluctuation-dominated (in the most central collisions). Comparisons are made to predictions from MC-Glauber, viscous hydrodynamics, AMPT and HIJING models. Together with the existing measurements of individual flow harmonics the presented results provide further constraints on initial conditions and the transport properties of the system produced in heavy-ion collisions.

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Transverse momentum and collision energy dependence of high p(T) hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

The STAR collaboration Adams, J. ; Adler, C. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 91 (2003) 172302, 2003.
Inspire Record 619063 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93908

We report high statistics measurements of inclusive charged hadron production in Au+Au and p+p collisions at \sqrtsNN=200 GeV. A large, approximately constant hadron suppression is observed in central Au+Au collisions for $5\lt\pT\lt12$ GeV/c. The collision energy dependence of the yields and the centrality and \pT dependence of the suppression provide stringent constraints on theoretical models of suppression. Models incorporating initial-state gluon saturation or partonic energy loss in dense matter are largely consistent with observations. We observe no evidence of \pT-dependent suppression, which may be expected from models incorporating jet attentuation in cold nuclear matter or scattering of fragmentation hadrons.

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Measurement of Event Background Fluctuations for Charged Particle Jet Reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
JHEP 03 (2012) 053, 2012.
Inspire Record 1084331 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58285

The effect of event background fluctuations on charged particle jet reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV has been measured with the ALICE experiment. The main sources of non-statistical fluctuations are characterized based purely on experimental data with an unbiased method, as well as by using single high $p_{\rm T}$ particles and simulated jets embedded into real Pb-Pb events and reconstructed with the anti-$k_{\rm T}$ jet finder. The influence of a low transverse momentum cut-off on particles used in the jet reconstruction is quantified by varying the minimum track $p_{\rm T}$ between 0.15 GeV/$c$ and 2 GeV/$c$. For embedded jets reconstructed from charged particles with $p_{\rm T} > 0.15$ GeV/$c$, the uncertainty in the reconstructed jet transverse momentum due to the heavy-ion background is measured to be 11.3 GeV/$c$ (standard deviation) for the 10% most central Pb-Pb collisions, slightly larger than the value of 11.0 GeV/$c$ measured using the unbiased method. For a higher particle transverse momentum threshold of 2 GeV/$c$, which will generate a stronger bias towards hard fragmentation in the jet finding process, the standard deviation of the fluctuations in the reconstructed jet transverse momentum is reduced to 4.8-5.0 GeV/$c$ for the 10% most central events. A non-Gaussian tail of the momentum uncertainty is observed and its impact on the reconstructed jet spectrum is evaluated for varying particle momentum thresholds, by folding the measured fluctuations with steeply falling spectra.

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Suppression of Charged Particle Production at Large Transverse Momentum in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abrahantes Quintana, A. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 696 (2011) 30-39, 2011.
Inspire Record 879583 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.63859

Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of primary charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV have been measured by the ALICE Collaboration at the LHC. The data are presented for central and peripheral collisions, corresponding to 0-5% and 70-80% of the hadronic Pb-Pb cross section. The measured charged particle spectra in $|\eta|<0.8$ and $0.3 < p_T < 20$ GeV/$c$ are compared to the expectation in pp collisions at the same $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$, scaled by the number of underlying nucleon-nucleon collisions. The comparison is expressed in terms of the nuclear modification factor $R_{\rm AA}$. The result indicates only weak medium effects ($R_{\rm AA} \approx $ 0.7) in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, $R_{\rm AA}$ reaches a minimum of about 0.14 at $p_{\rm T}=6$-7GeV/$c$ and increases significantly at larger $p_{\rm T}$. The measured suppression of high-$p_{\rm T}$ particles is stronger than that observed at lower collision energies, indicating that a very dense medium is formed in central Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.

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Particle-yield modification in jet-like azimuthal di-hadron correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abelev, B. ; Abrahantes Quintana, A. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 108 (2012) 092301, 2012.
Inspire Record 930312 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58113

The yield of charged particles associated with high-$p_{\rm T}$ trigger particles ($8 < p_{\rm T} < 15$ GeV/$c$) is measured with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV relative to proton-proton collisions at the same energy. The conditional per-trigger yields are extracted from the narrow jet-like correlation peaks in azimuthal di-hadron correlations. In the 5% most central collisions, we observe that the yield of associated charged particles with transverse momenta $p_{\rm T}> 3$ GeV/$c$ on the away-side drops to about 60% of that observed in pp collisions, while on the near-side a moderate enhancement of 20-30% is found.

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Pseudorapidity dependence of the anisotropic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 762 (2016) 376-388, 2016.
Inspire Record 1456145 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73940

We present measurements of the elliptic ($\mathrm{v}_2$), triangular ($\mathrm{v}_3$) and quadrangular ($\mathrm{v}_4$) anisotropic azimuthal flow over a wide range of pseudorapidities ($-3.5< \eta < 5$). The measurements are performed with Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV using the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The flow harmonics are obtained using two- and four-particle correlations from nine different centrality intervals covering central to peripheral collisions. We find that the shape of $\mathrm{v}_n(\eta)$ is largely independent of centrality for the flow harmonics $n=2-4$, however the higher harmonics fall off more steeply with increasing $|\eta|$. We assess the validity of extended longitudinal scaling of $\mathrm{v}_2$ by comparing to lower energy measurements, and find that the higher harmonic flow coefficients are proportional to the charged particle densities at larger pseudorapidities. Finally, we compare our measurements to both hydrodynamical and transport models, and find they both have challenges when it comes to describing our data.

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Version 2
Systematic studies of correlations between different order flow harmonics in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 97 (2018) 024906, 2018.
Inspire Record 1621591 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.78924

The correlations between event-by-event fluctuations of anisotropic flow harmonic amplitudes have been measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The results are reported in terms of multiparticle correlation observables dubbed Symmetric Cumulants. These observables are robust against biases originating from nonflow effects. The centrality dependence of correlations between the higher order harmonics (the quadrangular $v_4$ and pentagonal $v_5$ flow) and the lower order harmonics (the elliptic $v_2$ and triangular $v_3$ flow) is presented. The transverse momentum dependence of correlations between $v_3$ and $v_2$ and between $v_4$ and $v_2$ is also reported. The results are compared to calculations from viscous hydrodynamics and A Multi-Phase Transport ({AMPT}) model calculations. The comparisons to viscous hydrodynamic models demonstrate that the different order harmonic correlations respond differently to the initial conditions and the temperature dependence of the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density ($\eta/s$). A small average value of $\eta/s$ is favored independent of the specific choice of initial conditions in the models. The calculations with the AMPT initial conditions yield results closest to the measurements. Correlations between the magnitudes of $v_2$, $v_3$ and $v_4$ show moderate $p_{\rm T}$ dependence in mid-central collisions. Together with existing measurements of individual flow harmonics, the presented results provide further constraints on the initial conditions and the transport properties of the system produced in heavy-ion collisions.

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Event shape engineering for inclusive spectra and elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\rm{NN}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 034916, 2016.
Inspire Record 1384270 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72304

We report on results obtained with the Event Shape Engineering technique applied to Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\rm{NN}}=2.76$ TeV. By selecting events in the same centrality interval, but with very different average flow, different initial state conditions can be studied. We find the effect of the event-shape selection on the elliptic flow coefficient $v_2$ to be almost independent of transverse momentum $p_\rm{T}$, as expected if this effect is due to fluctuations in the initial geometry of the system. Charged hadron, pion, kaon, and proton transverse momentum distributions are found to be harder in events with higher-than-average elliptic flow, indicating an interplay between radial and elliptic flow.

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