Strange hadron collectivity in pPb and PbPb collisions

The CMS collaboration
CMS-HIN-19-004, 2022.
Inspire Record 2075415 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115425

The collective behavior of K$^0_\mathrm{S}$ and $\Lambda/\bar{\Lambda}$ strange hadrons is studied by measuring the elliptic azimuthal anisotropy ($v_2$) using the scalar-product and multiparticle correlation methods. Proton-lead (pPb) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 8.16 TeV and lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC are investigated. Nonflow effects in the pPb collisions are studied by using a subevent cumulant analysis and by excluding events where a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20\GeV is present. The strange hadron $v_2$ values extracted in \pPb collisions via the four- and six-particle correlation method are found to be nearly identical, suggesting the collective behavior. Comparisons of the pPb and PbPb results for both strange hadrons and charged particles illustrate how event-by-event flow fluctuations depend on the system size.

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Evidence for Collective Multiparticle Correlations in p-Pb Collisions

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 115 (2015) 012301, 2015.
Inspire Record 1345262 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.67530

The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, v2, are obtained in pPb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity (eta) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The pPb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 inverse nanobarns, were collected during the 2013 LHC pPb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at sqrt(s[NN])= 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5 inverse microbarns and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the pPb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and the Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the v2 coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the pPb and PbPb systems, the v2 values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data support the interpretation of a collective origin for the previously observed long-range (large Delta[eta]) correlations in both systems. The ratios of v2 values corresponding to correlations including different numbers of particles are compared to theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic behavior of a pPb system dominated by fluctuations in the positions of participant nucleons. These results provide new insights into the multi-particle dynamics of collision systems with a very small overlapping region.

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Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K ; Abelev, B ; Abrahantes Quintana, A ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 105 (2010) 252302, 2010.
Inspire Record 877822 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62277

We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|$\eta$|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2< $p_{\rm T}$< 5.0 GeV/$c$. The elliptic flow signal v$_2$, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 $\pm$ 0.002 (stat) $\pm$ 0.004 (syst) in the 40-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v$_2(p_{\rm T})$ reaches a maximum of 0.2 near $p_{\rm T}$ = 3 GeV/$c$. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.

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Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with ALICE

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 88 (2013) 044909, 2013.
Inspire Record 1215085 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66916

This publication describes the methods used to measure the centrality of inelastic Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair with ALICE. The centrality is a key parameter in the study of the properties of QCD matter at extreme temperature and energy density, because it is directly related to the initial overlap region of the colliding nuclei. Geometrical properties of the collision, such as the number of participating nucleons and number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, are deduced from a Glauber model with a sharp impact parameter selection, and shown to be consistent with those extracted from the data. The centrality determination provides a tool to compare ALICE measurements with those of other experiments and with theoretical calculations.

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Evidence for transverse momentum and pseudorapidity dependent event plane fluctuations in PbPb and pPb collisions

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 034911, 2015.
Inspire Record 1347386 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.67151

A systematic study of the factorization of long-range azimuthal two-particle correlations into a product of single-particle anisotropies is presented as a function of pt and eta of both particles, and as a function of the particle multiplicity in PbPb and pPb collisions. The data were taken with the CMS detector for PbPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV, covering a very wide range of multiplicity. Factorization is observed to be broken as a function of both particle pt and eta. When measured with particles of different pt, the magnitude of the factorization breakdown for the second Fourier harmonic reaches 20% for very central PbPb collisions but decreases rapidly as the multiplicity decreases. The data are consistent with viscous hydrodynamic predictions, which suggest that the effect of factorization breaking is mainly sensitive to the initial-state conditions rather than to the transport properties (e.g., shear viscosity) of the medium. The factorization breakdown is also computed with particles of different eta. The effect is found to be weakest for mid-central PbPb events but becomes larger for more central or peripheral PbPb collisions, and also for very high-multiplicity pPb collisions. The eta-dependent factorization data provide new insights to the longitudinal evolution of the medium formed in heavy ion collisions.

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Measurement of charged jet suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, B. ; Adam, J. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
JHEP 03 (2014) 013, 2014.
Inspire Record 1263194 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62723

A measurement of the transverse momentum spectra of jets in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV is reported. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-$k_{\rm T}$ jet algorithm with jet resolution parameters $R$ of $0.2$ and $0.3$ in pseudo-rapidity $|\eta|<0.5$. The transverse momentum $p_{\rm T}$ of charged particles is measured down to $0.15$ GeV/$c$ which gives access to the low $p_{\rm T}$ fragments of the jet. Jets found in heavy-ion collisions are corrected event-by-event for average background density and on an inclusive basis (via unfolding) for residual background fluctuations and detector effects. A strong suppression of jet production in central events with respect to peripheral events is observed. The suppression is found to be similar to the suppression of charged hadrons, which suggests that substantial energy is radiated at angles larger than the jet resolution parameter $R=0.3$ considered in the analysis. The fragmentation bias introduced by selecting jets with a high $p_{\rm T}$ leading particle, which rejects jets with a soft fragmentation pattern, has a similar effect on the jet yield for central and peripheral events. The ratio of jet spectra with $R=0.2$ and $R=0.3$ is found to be similar in Pb-Pb and simulated PYTHIA pp events, indicating no strong broadening of the radial jet structure in the reconstructed jets with $R<0.3$.

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Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 90 (2014) 054901, 2014.
Inspire Record 1300038 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65710

Measurements of multi-particle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flow-like, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions. However, when a $|\Delta \eta|$ gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high-multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p-Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of $v_{2}\{4\}$ to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find $v_{2}\{4\} \simeq v_{2}\{6\}\neq 0$ which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the $v_{2}$ distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in p-Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a $|\Delta\eta| > 1.4$ gap is placed.

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Version 2
Anisotropic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 132302, 2016.
Inspire Record 1419244 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72886

We report the first results of elliptic ($v_2$), triangular ($v_3$) and quadrangular flow ($v_4$) of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the central pseudorapidity region $|\eta|<0.8$ and for the transverse momentum range $0.2<p_{\rm T}<5$ GeV/$c$. The anisotropic flow is measured using two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap greater than one unit and with the multi-particle cumulant method. Compared to results from Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV, the anisotropic flow coefficients $v_{2}$, $v_{3}$ and $v_{4}$ are found to increase by ($3.0\pm0.6$)%, ($4.3\pm1.4$)% and ($10.2\pm3.8$)%, respectively, in the centrality range 0-50%. This increase can be attributed mostly to an increase of the average transverse momentum between the two energies. The measurements are found to be compatible with hydrodynamic model calculations. This comparison provides a unique opportunity to test the validity of the hydrodynamic picture and the power to further discriminate between various possibilities for the temperature dependence of shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the produced matter in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies.

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Multiharmonic Correlations of Different Flow Amplitudes in Pb-Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=2.76$  TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 127 (2021) 092302, 2021.
Inspire Record 1839720 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110113

The event-by-event correlations between three flow amplitudes are measured for the first time in Pb--Pb collisions, using higher-order Symmetric Cumulants. We find that different three-harmonic correlations develop during the collective evolution of the medium, when compared with correlations that exist in the initial state. These new results cannot be interpreted in terms of previous lower-order flow measurements, since contributions from two-harmonic correlations are explicitly removed in the new observables. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations provides new and independent constraints for the initial conditions and system properties of nuclear matter created in heavy-ion collisions.

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Measurement of transverse energy at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 94 (2016) 034903, 2016.
Inspire Record 1427723 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73993

We report the transverse energy ($E_{\mathrm T}$) measured with ALICE at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}}$ = 2.76 TeV as a function of centrality. The transverse energy was measured using identified single particle tracks. The measurement was cross checked using the electromagnetic calorimeters and the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles previously reported by ALICE. The results are compared to theoretical models as well as to results from other experiments. The mean $E_{\mathrm T}$ per unit pseudorapidity ($\eta$), $\langle $d$E_{\mathrm T}/$d$\eta \rangle$, in 0-5% central collisions is 1737 $\pm$ 6(stat.) $\pm$ 97(sys.) GeV. We find a similar centrality dependence of the shape of $\langle $d$E_{\mathrm T}/$d$\eta \rangle$ as a function of the number of participating nucleons to that seen at lower energies. The growth in $\langle $d$E_{\mathrm T}/$d$\eta \rangle$ at the LHC ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}}$ exceeds extrapolations of low energy data. We observe a nearly linear scaling of $\langle $d$E_{\mathrm T}/$d$\eta \rangle$ with the number of quark participants. With the canonical assumption of a 1 fm/$c$ formation time, we estimate that the energy density in 0-5% central Pb-Pb collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}}$ = 2.76 TeV is 12.3 $\pm$ 1.0 GeV/fm$^3$\xspace and that the energy density at the most central 80 fm$^2$ of the collision is at least 21.5 $\pm$ 1.7 GeV/fm$^3$. This is roughly 2.3 times that observed in 0-5% central Au-Au collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}}$ = 200 GeV.

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