Strangeness in nuclear collisions

Gazdzicki, Marek ; Rohrich, Dieter ;
Z.Phys.C 71 (1996) 55-64, 1996.
Inspire Record 420462 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.13638

Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton--proton and central nucleus--nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon--nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus--nucleus collisions than for nucleon--nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon--nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus--nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the Quark Gluon Plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies.

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Hadron spectra in hadron - nucleus collisions

Armutliiski, D. ; Baatar, Ts. ; Batsaikhan, Ts. ; et al.
Inspire Record 319258 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38698
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Proton-proton collisions at 3.5 GeV

Piserchio, R.J. ; Kalbach, R.M. ;
Nuovo Cim. 26 (1962) 729-739, 1962.
Inspire Record 1185010 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.37708

Ilford G-5 emulsions were exposed to an external, 3.5 GeY proton beam of the Berkeley Bevatron. A total of 1200 nuclear interactions of beam protons was located, of which 128 were identified as protonproton collisions. Multiple scattering, blob density, range and angle measurements were employed to determine the cross-sections for elastic and inelastic interactions as well as the identities and center-of-mass system momenta and scattering angles of secondaries from inelastic proton-proton interactions. This analysis indicates a cross-section of (8.0±2.4) mb for elastic events, (24.1±2.9) mb for two-prong inelasitc events, (7.9±1.4)mb for four-prong events and (0.6±0.3) mb for sixprong events. The mean charged pion multiplicity in inelastic interactions is 1.5±0.2 and corresponds to an average degree of inelasticity of 0.45 ±0.06. Center-of-mass system angular distributions of charged secondaries from inelastic events display a peaking for small scattering angles which is most pronounced for protons and pions from events with low secondary multiplicity. Momentum and transverse momentum distributions of secondary protons and pions from inelastic events are presented and compared with the results at other energies. The angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is found to be in fair agreement with that predicted by a uniform optical model of radius 1.25-10-13 cm and opacity 0.66.

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(Anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13 \ \text {TeV}$

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 889, 2020.
Inspire Record 1784203 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.97183

The study of (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation mechanism of loosely bound states in high energy hadronic collisions. In this paper the production of $\text{(anti-)deuterons}$ is studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV using the ALICE experiment. Thanks to the large accumulated integrated luminosity, it has been possible to measure (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions up to the same charged particle multiplicity ($\rm{d} N_{ch}/\rm{d}\eta\sim26$) as measured in p-Pb collisions at similar centre-of-mass energies. Within the uncertainties, the deuteron yield in pp collisions resembles the one in p-Pb interactions, suggesting a common formation mechanism behind the production of light nuclei in hadronic interactions. In this context the measurements are compared with the expectations of coalescence and Statistical Hadronisation Models (SHM).

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Transverse momentum distributions of deuterons in the INEL>0 pp collisions

Transverse momentum distributions of deuterons in the INEL pp collisions

Transverse momentum distributions of anti-deuterons in the INEL>0 pp collisions


Low-$p_T$ $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV at STAR

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 121 (2018) 132301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1676541 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.84821

We report first measurements of $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in the mass region 0.4 $

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The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.


Subthreshold K+ production in heavy ion collisions

Julien, J. ; Lebrun, D. ; Mougeot, A. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 264 (1991) 269-273, 1991.
Inspire Record 304290 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29376

The cross section for K + meson production in collisions of 36 Ar ions on a 48 Ti target has been measured at an incident energy of 92 MeV per nucleon. A description of the experimental set-up is given. Twelve events attributed to monoenergetic muons following the decay of stopped kaons have been identified. From these events, one infers a production cross section of 240 pb. Data are briefly discussed.

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Proton-proton collisions at 19.8 GeV/c

Abraham, F.F. ; Kalbach, R.M. ;
Nuovo Cim. 26 (1962) 717-728, 1962.
Inspire Record 1185008 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.37715

Elastic and inelastic 19.8 GeV/c proton-proton collisions in nuclear emulsion are examined using an external proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. Multiple scattering, blob density, range and angle measurements give the momentum spectra and angular distributions of secondary protons and pions. The partial cross-sections corresponding to inelastic interactions having two, four, six, eight, ten and twelve charged secondaries are found to be, respectively, (16.3±8.4) mb, (11.5 ± 6.0) mb, (4.3 ± 2.5) mb, (1.9 ± 1.3) mb, (0.5 ± 0.5) mb and (0.5±0.5)mb. The elastic cross-section is estimated to be (4.3±2.5) mb. The mean charged meson multiplicity for inelastic events is 3.7±0.5 and the average degree of inelasticity is 0.35±0.09. Strong forward and backward peaking is observed in the center-of-mass system for both secondary charged pions and protons. Distributions of energy, momentum and transverse momentum for identified charged secondaries are presented and compared with the results of work at other energies and with the results of a statistical theory of proton-proton collisions.

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Lambda hyperons in 2A-GeV Ni + Cu collisions

The EOS collaboration Justice, M. ; Albergo, S. ; Bieser, F. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 440 (1998) 12-19, 1998.
Inspire Record 447685 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.31414

A sample of Lambda's produced in 2 A*GeV Ni + Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. Low background in the invariant mass distribution allows for the unambiguous demonstration of Lambda directed flow. The transverse mass spectrum at mid-rapidity has the characteristic shoulder-arm shape of particles undergoing radial transverse expansion. A linear dependence of Lambda multiplicity on impact parameter is observed, from which a total Lambda + Sigma^0 production cross section of $112 +/- 24 mb is deduced. Detailed comparisons with the ARC and RVUU models are made.

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Negative pion production in subthreshold heavy ion collisions

Suzuki, T. ; Fukuda, M. ; Ichihara, T. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 257 (1991) 27-31, 1991.
Inspire Record 324305 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29463

Inclusive π − spectra have been measured for 14 N+C collisions at 41 A , 67 A , 80 A and 135 A MeV, the lowest energies measured for the charged pion. The cross sections fall exponentially with T π and the exponential slope factors at 90° in the nucleon-nucleon center of mass frame are determined. Energy distributions below a beam energy of 100 A MeV are less steep than expected from the monotonic decrease of the slope factor down to 100 A MeV. The production mechanism of energetic pions far below threshold is discussed for several models.

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Observation of Charmed Mesons in Photon-photon Collisions

The JADE collaboration Bartel, W. ; Becker, L. ; Felst, R. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 184 (1987) 288-292, 1987.
Inspire Record 235696 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.30214

The inclusive production of D ∗± mesons in single tagged photon-photon collisions is investigated using the JADE detector at PETRA. D ∗± mesons are reconstructed through their decay into D 0 +π ± where the D 0 decays via D 0 →Kππ 0 . The event rate and topology are compared to the expectations of c quark production in the quark-parton model: γγ→c c .

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Inclusive Charged Particle Production in Neutron - Nucleus Collisions

Chaney, D. ; Ferbel, T. ; Slattery, P. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 19 (1979) 3210, 1979.
Inspire Record 7658 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.47089

We have measured charged-particle production in neutron-nucleus collisions at high energy. Data on positive and negative particles produced in nuclei [ranging in atomic number (A) from beryllium to lead] are presented for essentially the full forward hemisphere of the center-of-mass system. A rough pion-proton separation is achieved for the positive spectra. Fits of the form Aα to the cross sections are presented as functions of transverse momentum, longitudinal momentum, rapidity, and pseudorapidity. It is found that α changes from ∼0.85 to ∼0.60 for laboratory rapidities ranging from 4 to 8. Trends in the data differ markedly when examined in terms of pseudorapidity rather than rapidity. Qualitatively, the major features of our data can be understood in terms of current particle-production models.

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Inclusive jet production in $p\bar{p}$ collisions

The D0 collaboration Abbott, B. ; Abdesselam, A. ; Abolins, M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 86 (2001) 1707-1712, 2001.
Inspire Record 536691 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42948

We report a new measurement of the pseudorapidity (eta) and transverse-energy (Et) dependence of the inclusive jet production cross section in pbar b collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV using 95 pb**-1 of data collected with the DZero detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The differential cross section d^2sigma/dEt deta is presented up to |eta| = 3, significantly extending previous measurements. The results are in good overall agreement with next-to-leading order predictions from QCD and indicate a preference for certain parton distribution functions.

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Muon pair production in ep collisions at HERA

The H1 collaboration Aktas, A. ; Andreev, V. ; Anthonis, T. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 583 (2004) 28-40, 2004.
Inspire Record 632638 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.46338

Cross sections for the production of two isolated muons up to high di-muon masses are measured in ep collisions at HERA with the H1 detector in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 71 pb^-1 at a centre of mass energy of sqrt{s} = 319 GeV. The results are in good agreement with Standard Model predictions, the dominant process being photon-photon interactions. Additional muons or electrons are searched for in events with two high transverse momentum muons using the full data sample corresponding to 114 pb^-1, where data at sqrt{s} = 301 GeV and sqrt{s} = 319 GeV are combined. Both the di-lepton sample and the tri-lepton sample agree well with the predictions.

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Dimuon Production in 800-{GeV} Proton Nucleus Collisions

Brown, C.N. ; Cooper, W.E. ; Finley, D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 63 (1989) 2637-2640, 1989.
Inspire Record 288346 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.20031

A measurement of continuum dimuon production in proton-copper collisions at 800-GeV incident energy is presented. The dimuons observed in this experiment cover the mass range from 6.5 to 18 GeV near y=0 in the proton-nucleon center-of-momentum frame. Scaling forms of the cross section for the continuum are compared with the results of other experiments in the context of the parton model and quantum chromodynamics. The present limitations of such scaling comparisons are discussed.

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The Transverse Energy Distribution in Hadron - Lead Collisions

Åkesson, T. ; Choi, Y. ; Dam, P. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 38 (1988) 397, 1988.
Inspire Record 250759 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15655

The transverse energy cross-sectiondσ/dET has been measured in the pseudorapidity region 0.6<η<2.4 for hadron-lead collisions at 200 GeV/c incident hadron momentum. TheET distribution extends to 40 GeV, which is twice the kinematic limit forp-p collisions at the same incident beam momentum. The distribution ofET is found to shift towards low pseudorapidities with increasing total transverse energy.

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Inclusive $D^{*\pm}$ production in photon-photon collisions

The TPC/Two-Gamma collaboration Alston-Garnjost, M. ; Avery, R.E. ; Barker, A.R. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 252 (1990) 499-504, 1990.
Inspire Record 299662 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29510

The TPC/Two-Gamma Collaboration has measured the inclusive cross section for production of charmed D ∗± mesons in photon-photon collisions. The reaction utilized was e + e - →e + e - D ∗± X, with D ∗± →D O π +- , D O →K -+ π ± , and either zero or one outgoing e ± detected. The result, σ(e + e - → e + e - D ∗± X) = 74±26±19 pb , is in agreement with the quark parton mo del prediction for e + e - → e + e - c c , combined with a Lund model for the hadronization of the charmed quarks.

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Phi Production in pi- p Collisions Near Threshold

Courant, H. ; Makdisi, Y.I. ; Marshak, M.L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 16 (1977) 1-6, 1977.
Inspire Record 125080 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.24607

Using a secondary pion beam from the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron we have studied the process π−p→φn in the region of the cross-section enhancement near kinematic threshold. For incident momenta between 1.6 and 2 GeV/c, we have determined production and decay angular distributions and extrapolated total cross sections from a sample of about 160 φ's above background. The production and decay distributions are consistent with isotropy over this entire incident-momentum range. The extrapolated total cross section varies between 19 and 25 μb.

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High $p_T$ Hadron Production in Photon - Photon Collisions

The TASSO collaboration Brandelik, R. ; Braunschweig, W. ; Gather, K. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 107 (1981) 290-296, 1981.
Inspire Record 167417 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.31027

We have studied the properties of hadron production in photon-photon scattering with tagged photons at the e + e − storage ring PETRA. A tail in the p T distribution of particles consistent with p T −4 has been observed. We show that this tail cannot be due to the hadronic part of the photon. Selected events with high p T particles are found to be consistent with a two-jet structure as expected from a point-like coupling of the photons to quarks. The lowest-order cross section predicted for γγ → q q , σ = 3 Σ e q 4 · σ γγ → μμ , is approached from above by the data at large transverse momenta.

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Diffractive Dijet Photoproduction in ep Collisions at HERA

The H1 collaboration Aaron, F.D. ; Alexa, C. ; Andreev, V. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 70 (2010) 15-37, 2010.
Inspire Record 857109 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61487

Measurements are presented of single and double-differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 47 pb^-1. The events are of the type ep -> eXY, where the hadronic system X contains at least two jets and is separated by a large rapidity gap from the system Y, which consists of a leading proton or low-mass proton excitation. The dijet cross sections are compared with QCD calculations at next-to-leading order and with a Monte Carlo model based on leading order matrix elements with parton showers. The measured cross sections are smaller than those obtained from the next-to-leading order calculations by a factor of about 0.6. This suppression factor has no significant dependence on the fraction x_gamma of the photon four-momentum entering the hard subprocess. Ratios of the diffractive to the inclusive dijet cross sections are measured for the first time and are compared with Monte Carlo models.

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Pion Production in 650-MeV p-p Collisions

Guzhavin, V.M. ; Kliger, G.K. ; Kolganov, V.Z. ; et al.
Sov.Phys.JETP 19 (1964) 847-854, 1964.
Inspire Record 1387586 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.70070

The angular and energy distributions of pions produced by 650-MeV protons and pion-nucleon correlations were studied using a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. The present investigation indicates that the experimental angular distributions of neutral and charged pions are consis- tent with the assumption of isotopic spin conservation. The contributions of rrN subsystem states with isospin T 11'N = 7' 2 and % are measured; the contribution of the latter is 72 ± 3%.

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Diffraction Dissociation in Proton Proton Collisions at {ISR} Energies

Armitage, J.C.M. ; Benz, P. ; Bobbink, G.J. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 194 (1982) 365-372, 1982.
Inspire Record 164126 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.7553

Data are presented on the reaction pp → pX in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.04< − t <0.80 GeV 2 and of c.m. energy squared 550 < s < 3880 GeV 2 . Invariant cross sections are given as a function of M 2 / s , where M is the mass of the missing system X, and of t . The cross sections are shown to scale in the variable M 2 / s , for M 2 / s > 0.01. The total diffractive cross section integrated over t and M 2 / s up to M 2 / s =0.05 rises by approximately 15% from σ dif =6.5±0.2 mb at 550 GeV 2 to σ dif =7.5±0.3 mb at 3880 GeV 2 .

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Pion Pair Production in Photon-photon Collisions at Dci

The DM1-DM2 collaboration Ajaltouni, Z. ; Falvard, A. ; Jousset, J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 194 (1987) 573, 1987.
Inspire Record 248992 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.30109

This paper presents experimental results on π + π − production threshold from the collision of quasi-real photons. The data, obtained at the e + e − collider DCI, are a combination of the results from the DM1 and DM2 experiments. Using the e + e − and π + π − production for normalization and cross-checks, we observe a pion pair yield at low invariant mass ( W < 500 MeV/ c 2 ) which is approximately twice the one expected from Born terms.

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Pion Pair Production From $\gamma \gamma$ Collisions at {PEP}

Smith, J.R. ; Burke, D.L. ; Abrams, G.S. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 30 (1984) 851, 1984.
Inspire Record 195739 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.23582

We have studied several features of the production of charged-hardon pairs by γγ collisions. We have measured the f0 partial width Γf0→γγ(Q2) for Q2 in the range 0<Q2<1.4 GeV2/c2, and obtained Γf0→γγ=2.52±0.13±0.38 keV at Q2≈0. The measured Q2 dependence is in agreement with the generalized vector-dominance model. The cross section for γγ→(π+π−+K+K−) in the mass region 1.6≤Mππ≤2.5 GeV/c2 has also been measured and the result compared with that expected from the QCD continuum.

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Leading neutron production in e+ p collisions at HERA

The ZEUS collaboration Chekanov, S. ; Krakauer, D. ; Magill, S. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 637 (2002) 3-56, 2002.
Inspire Record 587158 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.46613

The production of neutrons carrying at least 20% of the proton beam energy ($\xl > 0.2$) in $e^+p$ collisions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for a wide range of $Q^2$, the photon virtuality, from photoproduction to deep inelastic scattering. The neutron-tagged cross section, $e p\to e' X n$, is measured relative to the inclusive cross section, $e p\to e' X$, thereby reducing the systematic uncertainties. For $\xl >$ 0.3, the rate of neutrons in photoproduction is about half of that measured in hadroproduction, which constitutes a clear breaking of factorisation. There is about a 20% rise in the neutron rate between photoproduction and deep inelastic scattering, which may be attributed to absorptive rescattering in the $\gamma p$ system. For $0.64 < \xl < 0.82$, the rate of neutrons is almost independent of the Bjorken scaling variable $x$ and $Q^2$. However, at lower and higher $\xl$ values, there is a clear but weak dependence on these variables, thus demonstrating the breaking of limiting fragmentation. The neutron-tagged structure function, ${{F}^{\rm\tiny LN(3)}_2}(x,Q^2,\xl)$, rises at low values of $x$ in a way similar to that of the inclusive \ff of the proton. The total $\gamma \pi$ cross section and the structure function of the pion, $F^{\pi}_2(x_\pi,Q^2)$ where $x_\pi = x/(1-\xl)$, have been determined using a one-pion-exchange model, up to uncertainties in the normalisation due to the poorly understood pion flux. At fixed $Q^2$, $F^{\pi}_2$ has approximately the same $x$ dependence as $F_2$ of the proton.

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Quarkonia production in $p \bar{p}$ collisions with CDF

Bauer, G. ;
AIP Conf.Proc. 357 (2008) 94-104, 2008.
Inspire Record 396740 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.43039

The production cross sections for Υ’s, ψ’s and χ c ’s in high energy pp̄ collisions have been measured using the CDF detector at Fermilab. Heavy quarkonia production involves a variety of mechanisms, and the data is used to disentangle various components. Large prompt ψ‐cross sections were observed, contrary to conventional expectations.

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