Direct virtual photon production in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 770 (2017) 451-458, 2017.
Inspire Record 1474129 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77495

We report the direct virtual photon invariant yields in the transverse momentum ranges $1\!<\!p_{T}\!<\!3$ GeV/$c$ and $5\!<\!p_T\!<\!10$ GeV/$c$ at mid-rapidity derived from the dielectron invariant mass continuum region $0.10<M_{ee}<0.28$ GeV/$c^{2}$ for 0-80\% minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV. A clear excess in the invariant yield compared to the number-of-binary-collisions ($N_{bin}$) scaled $p+p$ reference is observed in the $p_T$ range $1\!<\!p_{T}\!<\!3$ GeV/$c$. For $p_T\!>6$ GeV/$c$ the production follows $N_{bin}$ scaling. Model calculations with contributions from thermal radiation and initial hard parton scattering are consistent within uncertainties with the direct virtual photon invariant yield.

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Cumulants and Correlation Functions of Net-proton, Proton and Antiproton Multiplicity Distributions in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 104 (2021) 024902, 2021.
Inspire Record 1843941 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101356

We report a systematic measurement of cumulants, $C_{n}$, for net-proton, proton and antiproton multiplicity distributions, and correlation functions, $\kappa_n$, for proton and antiproton multiplicity distributions up to the fourth order in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 54.4, 62.4 and 200 GeV. The $C_{n}$ and $\kappa_n$ are presented as a function of collision energy, centrality and kinematic acceptance in rapidity, $y$, and transverse momentum, $p_{T}$. The data were taken during the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program (2010 -- 2017) at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. The measurements are carried out at midrapidity ($|y| <$ 0.5) and transverse momentum 0.4 $<$$p_{\rm T}$$<$ 2.0 GeV/$c$, using the STAR detector at RHIC. We observe a non-monotonic energy dependence ($\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}$ = 7.7 -- 62.4 GeV) of the net-proton $C_{4}$/$C_{2}$ with the significance of 3.1$\sigma$ for the 0-5% central Au+Au collisions. This is consistent with the expectations of critical fluctuations in a QCD-inspired model. Thermal and transport model calculations show a monotonic variation with $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}$. For the multiparticle correlation functions, we observe significant negative values for a two-particle correlation function, $\kappa_2$, of protons and antiprotons, which are mainly due to the effects of baryon number conservation. Furthermore, it is found that the four-particle correlation function, $\kappa_4$, of protons plays a role in determining the energy dependence of proton $C_4/C_1$ below 19.6 GeV, which cannot be understood by the effect of baryon number conservation.

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Pion, Kaon, and (Anti-)Proton Production in U+U Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV in STAR

The STAR collaboration
Inspire Record 2129269 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132660

We present the first measurements of transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p(\bar{p})$ at midrapidity ($|y| < 0.1$) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV with the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of particle yields, average transverse momenta, particle ratios and kinetic freeze-out parameters are discussed. The results are compared with the published results from Au+Au collisions at \snn = 200 GeV in STAR. The results are also compared to those from A Multi Phase Transport (AMPT) model.

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Charge-dependent pair correlations relative to a third particle in $p$ + Au and $d$+ Au collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Margetis, S. ; Markert, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 798 (2019) 134975, 2019.
Inspire Record 1738942 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105911

Quark interactions with topological gluon configurations can induce chirality imbalance and local parity violation in quantum chromodynamics. This can lead to electric charge separation along the strong magnetic field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions -- the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We report measurements by the STAR collaboration of a CME-sensitive observable in $p$+Au and $d$+Au collisions at 200 GeV, where the CME is not expected, using charge-dependent pair correlations relative to a third particle. We observe strong charge-dependent correlations similar to those measured in heavy-ion collisions. This bears important implications for the interpretation of the heavy-ion data.

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Measurement of the inclusive jet cross-section in anti-p p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.8-TeV

The CDF collaboration Affolder, T. ; Akimoto, H. ; Akopian, A. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 64 (2001) 032001, 2001.
Inspire Record 552797 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42928

We present results from the measurement of the inclusive jet cross section for jet transverse energies from 40 to 465 GeV in the pseudo-rapidity range $0.1<|\eta|<0.7$. The results are based on 87 $pb^{-1}$ of data collected by the CDF collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The data are consistent with previously published results. The data are also consistent with QCD predictions given the flexibility allowed from current knowledge of the proton parton distributions. We develop a new procedure for ranking the agreement of the parton distributions with data and find that the data are best described by QCD predictions using the parton distribution functions which have a large gluon contribution at high $E_T$ (CTEQ4HJ).

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Bulk properties of the system formed in $Au+Au$ collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ =14.5 GeV at the BNL STAR detector

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 101 (2020) 024905, 2020.
Inspire Record 1748776 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.103857

We report systematic measurements of bulk properties of the system created in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 14.5 GeV recorded by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).The transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$ and $p(\bar{p})$ are studied at mid-rapidity ($|y| < 0.1$) for nine centrality intervals. The centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$),and pseudorapidity ($\eta$) dependence of inclusive charged particle elliptic flow ($v_2$), and rapidity-odd charged particles directed flow ($v_{1}$) results near mid-rapidity are also presented. These measurements are compared with the published results from Au+Au collisions at other energies, and from Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. The results at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 14.5 GeV show similar behavior as established at other energies and fit well in the energy dependence trend. These results are important as the 14.5 GeV energy fills the gap in $\mu_B$, which is of the order of 100 MeV,between $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ =11.5 and 19.6 GeV. Comparisons of the data with UrQMD and AMPT models show poor agreement in general.

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Centrality and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow of multi-strange hadrons and $\phi$ meson in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 062301, 2016.
Inspire Record 1383879 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71571

We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity ($|y|<1.0$) for multi-strange hadrons and $\phi$ meson as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at center of mass energy $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV. We observe that the transverse momentum dependence of $\phi$ and $\Omega$ $v_{2}$ is similar to that of $\pi$ and $p$, respectively, which may indicate that the heavier strange quark flows as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. This observation constitutes a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. Number of constituent quark scaling is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for both 0-30$\%$ and 30-80$\%$ collision centrality. There is an indication of the breakdown of previously observed mass ordering between $\phi$ and proton $v_{2}$ at low transverse momentum in the 0-30$\%$ centrality range, possibly indicating late hadronic interactions affecting the proton $v_{2}$.

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Version 2
Collision energy dependence of second-order off-diagonal and diagonal cumulants of net-charge, net-proton and net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 100 (2019) 014902, 2019.
Inspire Record 1724809 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105908

We report the first measurements of a complete second-order cumulant matrix of net-charge, net-proton, and net-kaon multiplicity distributions for the first phase of the beam energy scan program at RHIC. This includes the centrality and, for the first time, the pseudorapidity window dependence of both diagonal and off-diagonal cumulants in Au+Au collisions at \sNN~= 7.7-200 GeV. Within the available acceptance of $|\eta|<0.5$, the cumulants grow linearly with the pseudorapidity window. Relative to the corresponding measurements in peripheral collisions, the ratio of off-diagonal over diagonal cumulants in central collisions indicates an excess correlation between net-charge and net-kaon, as well as between net-charge and net-proton. The strength of such excess correlation increases with the collision energy. The correlation between net-proton and net-kaon multiplicity distributions is observed to be negative at \sNN~= 200 GeV and change to positive at the lowest collision energy. Model calculations based on non-thermal (UrQMD) and thermal (HRG) production of hadrons cannot explain the data. These measurements will help map the QCD phase diagram, constrain hadron resonance gas model calculations, and provide new insights on the energy dependence of baryon-strangeness correlations. An erratum has been added to address the issue of self-correlation in the previously considered efficiency correction for off-diagonal cumulant measurement. Previously considered unidentified (net-)charge correlation results ($\sigma^{11}_{Q,p}$ and $\sigma^{11}_{Q,k})$ are now replaced with identified (net-)charge correlation ($\sigma^{11}_{Q^{PID},p}$ and $\sigma^{11}_{Q^{PID},k}$)

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Search for the chiral magnetic effect with isobar collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$=200 GeV by the STAR Collaboration at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 014901, 2022.
Inspire Record 1914564 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115993

The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is predicted to occur as a consequence of a local violation of $\cal P$ and $\cal CP$ symmetries of the strong interaction amidst a strong electro-magnetic field generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Experimental manifestation of the CME involves a separation of positively and negatively charged hadrons along the direction of the magnetic field. Previous measurements of the CME-sensitive charge-separation observables remain inconclusive because of large background contributions. In order to better control the influence of signal and backgrounds, the STAR Collaboration performed a blind analysis of a large data sample of approximately 3.8 billion isobar collisions of $^{96}_{44}$Ru+$^{96}_{44}$Ru and $^{96}_{40}$Zr+$^{96}_{40}$Zr at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV. Prior to the blind analysis, the CME signatures are predefined as a significant excess of the CME-sensitive observables in Ru+Ru collisions over those in Zr+Zr collisions, owing to a larger magnetic field in the former. A precision down to 0.4% is achieved, as anticipated, in the relative magnitudes of the pertinent observables between the two isobar systems. Observed differences in the multiplicity and flow harmonics at the matching centrality indicate that the magnitude of the CME background is different between the two species. No CME signature that satisfies the predefined criteria has been observed in isobar collisions in this blind analysis.

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Measurement of the sixth-order cumulant of net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 27, 54.4, and 200 GeV at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 127 (2021) 262301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1866196 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105720

According to first-principle lattice QCD calculations, the transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadronic matter is a smooth crossover in the region μB ≤ T c. In this range the ratio, C6=C2, of net-baryon distributions are predicted to be negative. In this Letter, we report the first measurement of the midrapidity net-proton C6=C2 from 27, 54.4, and 200 GeV Au þ Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The dependence on collision centrality and kinematic acceptance in (p T , y) are analyzed. While for 27 and 54.4 GeV collisions the C6=C2 values are close to zero within uncertainties, it is observed that for 200 GeV collisions, the C6=C2 ratio becomes progressively negative from peripheral to central collisions. Transport model calculations without critical dynamics predict mostly positive values except for the most central collisions within uncertainties. These observations seem to favor a smooth crossover in the high-energy nuclear collisions at top RHIC energy.

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