On pion production intensities in hadron - nucleus collisions

Strugalska-Gola, E. ; Strugalski, Z. ; Sredniawa, B. ; et al.
Inspire Record 428911 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.39365
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Azimuthal anisotropy in U$+$U and Au$+$Au collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 115 (2015) 222301, 2015.
Inspire Record 1373553 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71502

Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$, for charged hadrons from U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the amount of energy deposited by spectators in the STAR Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of $v_2\{2\}$ on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U+U collisions. An initial-state model with gluon saturation describes the slope of $v_2\{2\}$ as a function of multiplicity in central collisions better than one based on Glauber with a two-component multiplicity model.

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Observation of enhanced subthreshold K+ production in central collisions between heavy nuclei

Miskowiec, D. ; Ahner, W. ; Barth, R. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 72 (1994) 3650-3653, 1994.
Inspire Record 373335 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.19695

In the very heavy collision system Au197+197Au the K+ production process was studied as a function of impact parameter at 1 GeV/nucleon, a beam energy well below the free N-N threshold. The K+ multiplicity increases more than linearly with the number of participant nucleons and the K+/π+ ratio rises significantly when going from peripheral to central collisions. The measured K+ double differential cross section is enhanced by a factor of 6 compared to microscopic transport calculations if secondary processes (ΔN→KΛN and ΔΔ→KΛN) are ignored.

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Net-Charge Fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 152301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1123802 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60476

We report the first measurement of the net-charge fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dynamical fluctuations per unit entropy are observed to decrease when going from peripheral to central collisions. An additional reduction in the amount of fluctuations is seen in comparison to the results from lower energies. We examine the dependence of fluctuations on the pseudorapidity interval, which may account for the dilution of fluctuations during the evolution of the system. We find that the fluctuations at LHC are smaller compared to the measurements at the Relativistic heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and as such, closer to what has been theoretically predicted for the formation of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

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A study of hadron Pb collisions through hadron-induced showers in thick lead chambers

Tamada, M. ; Ohsawa, A. ;
Nucl.Phys.B 581 (2000) 73-90, 2000.
Inspire Record 532697 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.32563

Structures of hadron-induced showers observed by the Pamir thick lead chambers are compared with simulations. The simulations are made for several models, VENUS, QGSJET, HDPM and the modified UA5 model, for hadron–nucleus interactions. A parameter Z , which is related to the inelasticity of hadron–Pb interactions, is defined and the Z -distribution of experimental data is compared with those of the simulations applying the same procedure of data processing to both sets of data. The Z -distribution for single-isolated hadrons is well reproduced by the models (VENUS, QGSJET and modified UA5) which give an average inelasticity 〈K h – Pb 〉=0.7 –0.8, whereas that for multi hadrons is close to the HDPM model which gives a smaller inelasticity of 〈K h – Pb 〉=0.5 –0.6. The difference of the characteristics between the two categories of hadron-induced showers is discussed.

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Direct virtual photon production in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 770 (2017) 451-458, 2017.
Inspire Record 1474129 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77495

We report the direct virtual photon invariant yields in the transverse momentum ranges $1\!<\!p_{T}\!<\!3$ GeV/$c$ and $5\!<\!p_T\!<\!10$ GeV/$c$ at mid-rapidity derived from the dielectron invariant mass continuum region $0.10<M_{ee}<0.28$ GeV/$c^{2}$ for 0-80\% minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV. A clear excess in the invariant yield compared to the number-of-binary-collisions ($N_{bin}$) scaled $p+p$ reference is observed in the $p_T$ range $1\!<\!p_{T}\!<\!3$ GeV/$c$. For $p_T\!>6$ GeV/$c$ the production follows $N_{bin}$ scaling. Model calculations with contributions from thermal radiation and initial hard parton scattering are consistent within uncertainties with the direct virtual photon invariant yield.

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On the production of fast and slow particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

Jain, P.L. ; Sengupta, K. ; Singh, G. ;
Phys.Rev.C 44 (1991) 844-853, 1991.
Inspire Record 315632 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.26111

Multiplicity and angular distributions of shower, grey, and black particles produced in the interactions of S32 at 200A GeV, O16 at 200 and 60A GeV, and He4 at ∼140A GeV in emulsion are compared with the predictions of a Monte Carlo code which takes into account the internuclear cascading. The correlations between the various parameters belonging to the same or to the different kinds of particles are discussed. The data on shower and grey particles from all the beams are well described by the code. However, the black prong data show a significant departure from this model.

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Jets of nuclear matter in He-A(T) inelastic collisions at 4.5-A-GeV/c

Besliu, C. ; Jipa, A. ; Zaharia, R. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.A 1 (1998) 65-75, 1998.
Inspire Record 467239 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.43769

The problem of the nuclear matter jets in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 4.5 A GeV/c is discussed. The global analysis of experimental data, namely the sphericity tensor, is used to evidence such jets.

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Characteristics of neutral pion production process in pi- Xe nuclear collisions at 3.5-GeV/c momentum

Strugalski, Z. ; Sredniawa, B. ; El-Sharkawy, S. ; et al.
Inspire Record 303170 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.39384
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Limitations on Production Cross-section of Neutral Penetrating Particles in 70-{GeV}/c $p N$ Collisions

Agakishiev, G.N. ; Vovenko, A.S. ; Goryachev, V.N. ; et al.
Sov.J.Nucl.Phys. 32 (1980) 345, 1980.
Inspire Record 153106 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.41494
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Grishin, V.G. ; Inogamova, T.Ya. ; Inogamov, Sh.V. ;
Sov.J.Nucl.Phys. 19 (1974) 697, 1974.
Inspire Record 80902 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.18353
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Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 90 (2014) 054901, 2014.
Inspire Record 1300038 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65710

Measurements of multi-particle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flow-like, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions. However, when a $|\Delta \eta|$ gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high-multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p-Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of $v_{2}\{4\}$ to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find $v_{2}\{4\} \simeq v_{2}\{6\}\neq 0$ which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the $v_{2}$ distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in p-Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a $|\Delta\eta| > 1.4$ gap is placed.

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Charge correlations using the balance function in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 723 (2013) 267-279, 2013.
Inspire Record 1211186 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60298

In high-energy heavy-ion collisions, the correlations between the emitted particles can be used as a probe to gain insight into the charge creation mechanisms. In this Letter, we report the first results of such studies using the electric charge balance function in the relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta\eta$) and azimuthal angle ($\Delta\varphi$) in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The width of the balance function decreases with growing centrality (i.e. for more central collisions) in both projections. This centrality dependence is not reproduced by HIJING, while AMPT, a model which incorporates strings and parton rescattering, exhibits qualitative agreement with the measured correlations in $\Delta\varphi$ but fails to describe the correlations in $\Delta\eta$. A thermal blast-wave model incorporating local charge conservation and tuned to describe the $p_{\rm T}$ spectra and v$_2$ measurements reported by ALICE, is used to fit the centrality dependence of the width of the balance function and to extract the average separation of balancing charges at freeze-out. The comparison of our results with measurements at lower energies reveals an ordering with $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$: the balance functions become narrower with increasing energy for all centralities. This is consistent with the effect of larger radial flow at the LHC energies but also with the late stage creation scenario of balancing charges. However, the relative decrease of the balance function widths in $\Delta\eta$ and $\Delta\varphi$ with centrality from the highest SPS to the LHC energy exhibits only small differences. This observation cannot be interpreted solely within the framework where the majority of the charge is produced at a later stage in the evolution of the heavy--ion collision.

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Long-range pseudorapidity dihadron correlations in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 747 (2015) 265-271, 2015.
Inspire Record 1346551 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72303

Dihadron angular correlations in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV are reported as a function of the measured zero-degree calorimeter neutral energy and the forward charged hadron multiplicity in the Au-beam direction. A finite correlated yield is observed at large relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta\eta$) on the near side (i.e. relative azimuth $\Delta\phi\sim0$). This correlated yield as a function of $\Delta\eta$ appears to scale with the dominant, primarily jet-related, away-side ($\Delta\phi\sim\pi$) yield. The Fourier coefficients of the $\Delta\phi$ correlation, $V_{n}=\langle\cos n\Delta\phi\rangle$, have a strong $\Delta\eta$ dependence. In addition, it is found that $V_{1}$ is approximately inversely proportional to the mid-rapidity event multiplicity, while $V_{2}$ is independent of it with similar magnitude in the forward ($d$-going) and backward (Au-going) directions.

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Constraining the initial conditions and temperature dependent viscosity with three-particle correlations in Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 790 (2019) 81-88, 2019.
Inspire Record 1510301 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101355

We present three-particle mixed-harmonic correlations $\la \cos (m\phi_a + n\phi_b - (m+n) \phi_c)\ra$ for harmonics $m,n=1-3$ for charged particles in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC. These measurements provide information on the three-dimensional structure of the initial collision zone and are important for constraining models of a subsequent low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma expansion phase. We investigate correlations between the first, second and third harmonics predicted as a consequence of fluctuations in the initial state. The dependence of the correlations on the pseudorapidity separation between particles show hints of a breaking of longitudinal invariance. We compare our results to a number of state-of-the art hydrodynamic calculations with different initial states and temperature dependent viscosities. These measurements provide important steps towards constraining the temperature dependent transport and the longitudinal structure of the initial state at RHIC.

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Production of neutral strange particles in p Ar, p Xe and anti-p Xe collisions at 200-GeV

Derado, I. ; Kadija, K. ; Malecki, M. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 50 (1991) 31-36, 1991.
Inspire Record 28958 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15007

The production of neutral strange particles (K0, Λ) inp Ar,pXe and\(\bar p\)Xe collisions at 200 GeV is investigated in the NA5 experiment using a streamer chamber at the CERN SPS. Results are presented on inclusive cross sections, average multiplicities, and on rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of neutral strange particles.

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Measurement of charge multiplicity asymmetry correlations in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 89 (2014) 044908, 2014.
Inspire Record 1222542 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100169

A study is reported of the same- and opposite-sign charge-dependent azimuthal correlations with respect to the event plane in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The charge multiplicity asymmetries between the up/down and left/right hemispheres relative to the event plane are utilized. The contributions from statistical fluctuations and detector effects were subtracted from the (co-)variance of the observed charge multiplicity asymmetries. In the mid- to most-central collisions, the same- (opposite-) sign pairs are preferentially emitted in back-to-back (aligned on the same-side) directions. The charge separation across the event plane, measured by the difference, $\Delta$, between the like- and unlike-sign up/down $-$ left/right correlations, is largest near the event plane. The difference is found to be proportional to the event-by-event final-state particle ellipticity (via the observed second-order harmonic $v^{\rm obs}_{2}$), where $\Delta=(1.3\pm1.4({\rm stat})^{+4.0}_{-1.0}({\rm syst}))\times10^{-5}+(3.2\pm0.2({\rm stat})^{+0.4}_{-0.3}({\rm syst}))\times10^{-3}v^{\rm obs}_{2}$ for 20-40% Au+Au collisions. The implications for the proposed chiral magnetic effect are discussed.

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Observation of charge asymmetry dependence of pion elliptic flow and the possible chiral magnetic wave in heavy-ion collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 114 (2015) 252302, 2015.
Inspire Record 1358666 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72237

We present measurements of $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ elliptic flow, $v_2$, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} =$ 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5 and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, $A_{ch}$, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that $\pi^-$ ($\pi^+$) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = \text{27 GeV}$ and higher. At $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = \text{200 GeV}$, the slope of the difference of $v_2$ between $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ as a function of $A_{ch}$ exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

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Event-plane-dependent dihadron correlations with harmonic $v_n$ subtraction in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Agakishiev, H. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 89 (2014) 041901, 2014.
Inspire Record 1288534 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.97120

STAR measurements of dihadron azimuthal correlations ($\Delta\phi$) are reported in mid-central (20-60\%) Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=200$ GeV as a function of the trigger particle's azimuthal angle relative to the event plane, $\phi_{s}=|\phi_{t}-\psi_{\rm EP}|$. The elliptic ($v_2$), triangular ($v_3$), and quadratic ($v_4$) flow harmonic backgrounds are subtracted using the Zero Yield At Minimum (ZYAM) method. The results are compared to minimum-bias d+Au collisions. It is found that a finite near-side ($|\Delta\phi|<\pi/2$) long-range pseudorapidity correlation (ridge) is present in the in-plane direction ($\phi_{s}\sim 0$). The away-side ($|\Delta\phi|>\pi/2$) correlation shows a modification from d+Au data, varying with $\phi_{s}$. The modification may be a consequence of pathlength-dependent jet-quenching and may lead to a better understanding of high-density QCD.

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Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 94 (2016) 024909, 2016.
Inspire Record 1382600 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.99053

Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta \eta$) for charged particle pairs at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma (QGP). The narrowing of the balance function in central collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV implies that a QGP is still being created at this relatively low energy.

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Multiplicities of Secondary Pions in Relativistic Nucleus-nucleus Collisions and the Distribution of the Number of Interacting Nucleons of the Incident Nucleus

Bartke, J. ;
Abstract Only In *Berkeley 1980, Proceedings, Nuclear Physics, Vol. 1*, 541, 1980.
Inspire Record 156735 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.39555
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Similarity of Multiplicity Distributions of Secondary Particles Produced in $p$ C and $p$ Ta Collisions at 2-{GeV}/$c$ - 10-{GeV}/$c$

Armutliisky, D. ; Akhababian, N. ; Grekova, L. ;
Bulg.J.Phys. 7 (1980) 592-600, 1980.
Inspire Record 154320 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38624
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Inclusive Cross-Sections for 180-Degree Production of High-Energy Protons, Deuterons, and Tritons in p-Nucleus Collisions at 600-MeV and 800-MeV

Frankel, S. ; Frati, W. ; Van Dyck, O. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 36 (1976) 642, 1976.
Inspire Record 100888 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.21102

The inclusive cross sections, measured up to large values of effective mass (≡q22ν), are well fitted by dσd3p=Bxexp(−αxp22mx). Values of Bx and αx are given for Be, C, Cu, and Ta at the incident proton energy of 600 MeV and for Ag, Ta, and Pt at 800 MeV. Extremely large dp and tp ratios and large A and q2 dependences of the relative cross sections are observed.

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Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 719 (2013) 18-28, 2013.
Inspire Record 1116150 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62177

The elliptic, $v_2$, triangular, $v_3$, and quadrangular, $v_4$, azimuthal anisotropic flow coefficients are measured for unidentified charged particles, pions and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results obtained with the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods are reported for the pseudo-rapidity range $|\eta|<0.8$ at different collision centralities and as a function of transverse momentum, $p_{\rm T}$, out to $p_{\rm T}=20$ GeV/$c$. The observed non-zero elliptic and triangular flow depends only weakly on transverse momentum for $p_{\rm T}>8$ GeV/$c$. The small $p_{\rm T}$ dependence of the difference between elliptic flow results obtained from the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods suggests a common origin of flow fluctuations up to $p_{\rm T}=8$ GeV/$c$. The magnitude of the (anti-)proton elliptic and triangular flow is larger than that of pions out to at least $p_{\rm T}=8$ GeV/$c$ indicating that the particle type dependence persists out to high $p_{\rm T}$.

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