Elastic and inelastic 19.8 GeV/c proton-proton collisions in nuclear emulsion are examined using an external proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. Multiple scattering, blob density, range and angle measurements give the momentum spectra and angular distributions of secondary protons and pions. The partial cross-sections corresponding to inelastic interactions having two, four, six, eight, ten and twelve charged secondaries are found to be, respectively, (16.3±8.4) mb, (11.5 ± 6.0) mb, (4.3 ± 2.5) mb, (1.9 ± 1.3) mb, (0.5 ± 0.5) mb and (0.5±0.5)mb. The elastic cross-section is estimated to be (4.3±2.5) mb. The mean charged meson multiplicity for inelastic events is 3.7±0.5 and the average degree of inelasticity is 0.35±0.09. Strong forward and backward peaking is observed in the center-of-mass system for both secondary charged pions and protons. Distributions of energy, momentum and transverse momentum for identified charged secondaries are presented and compared with the results of work at other energies and with the results of a statistical theory of proton-proton collisions.
The angular and energy distributions of pions produced by 650-MeV protons and pion-nucleon correlations were studied using a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. The present investigation indicates that the experimental angular distributions of neutral and charged pions are consis- tent with the assumption of isotopic spin conservation. The contributions of rrN subsystem states with isospin T 11'N = 7' 2 and % are measured; the contribution of the latter is 72 ± 3%.
A systematic study has been made of the reactions pp→pp and pp→pN* in the angular range from θlab=10∘ to θc.m.=90∘ at 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 GeVc. An orthogonal dispersion magnetic spectrometer detected protons from interactions in hydrogen with momentum transfer (−t) in excess of 0.5 (GeV)2. Well-defined peaks in the missing-mass spectra occurred at average N* masses of 1240±6, 1508±2, and 1683±3 MeV with average full widths of 102±4, 92±3, and 110±4 MeV, respectively. Below 2400 MeV no other significant enhancements were found. The N* production cross sections dσdt near θc.m.=90∘ are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the statistical model. For each isobar the differential cross section at fixed energy varies as exp(−vv0), where v≡[−tu(t+u)]; v0 varies systematically with energy and tends toward the same value (≈0.4 GeV2) for each isobar at the upper limit of our energy range.
The single-pion production reactions $pp\to d\pi^+$, $pp\to np\pi^+$ and $pp\to pp\pi^0$ were measured at a beam momentum of 0.95 GeV/c ($T_p \approx$ 400 MeV) using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The implementation of a central calorimeter provided particle identification, energy determination and neutron detection in addition to time-of-flight and angle measurements. Thus all pion production channels were recorded with 1-4 overconstraints. The total and differential cross sections obtained are compared to previous data and theoretical calculations. Main emphasis is put on the discussion of the $pp\pi^0$ channel, where we obtain angular distributions different from previous experimental results, however, partly in good agreement with recent phenomenological and theoretical predictions. In particular we observe very large anisotropies for the $\pi^0$ angular distributions in the kinematical region of small relative proton momenta revealing there a dominance of proton spinflip transitions associated with $\pi^0$ $s$- and $d$-partial waves and emphasizing the important role of $\pi^0$ d-waves.
A measurement of the total pp cross section at the LHC at s=7 TeV is presented. In a special run with high- β⋆ beam optics, an integrated luminosity of 80 μb −1 was accumulated in order to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t . The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the |t| range from 0.01 GeV2 to 0.1 GeV2 to extrapolate to |t|→0 , the total cross section, σtot(pp→X) , is measured via the optical theorem to be: σtot(pp→X)=95.35±0.38(stat.)±1.25(exp.)±0.37(extr.)mb, where the first error is statistical, the second accounts for all experimental systematic uncertainties and the last is related to uncertainties in the extrapolation to |t|→0 . In addition, the slope of the elastic cross section at small |t| is determined to be B=19.73±0.14(stat.)±0.26(syst.) GeV−2 .