Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton--proton and central nucleus--nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon--nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus--nucleus collisions than for nucleon--nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon--nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus--nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the Quark Gluon Plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies.
Charged- and neutral-particle production from 400-GeV/c pp collisions are measured simultaneously using the Fermilab 15-ft bubble chamber. The π0 and K0 cross sections are rising at Fermilab energies, while the Λ0 cross section remains fairly constant. Similarly, the average number of π0's and K0's increases as a function of the number of negative particles in an event, yet no such dependence is noted for the Λ0's. The ratio of average number of π0 to average number of π− per inelastic collisions is found to be constant at Serpukhov and Fermilab energies (40 to 400 GeV/c) and equal to 1.22±0.02. Cross sections for Σ0 and Σ¯0 production are measured and limits are found for η0 and ω0 production. Neutral- and charged-pion correlations are compared with five pion-production models.
Inclusive K0K¯0, Λ0, and Λ¯0 cross sections have been determined using a 292-event/mb exposure of the hydrogen-filled 15-foot bubble chamber at Fermilab. From the invariant-mass distributions of V0π± pairs we find that σ(K*±(890))=4.4±1.4 mb, σ(Σ*±(1385))=0.54±0.40 mb, and σ(Σ¯*±(1385))=0.45±0.34 mb. It is estimated that 0.32 ± 0.11 of K0K¯0's, 0.21 ± 0.16 of Λ's, and 0.96 ± 0.75 of Λ¯'s originate from decays of K*(890) and Σ*(1385), respectively.
The ratios of yields of anti-baryons to baryons probes the mechanisms of baryon-number transport. Results for , , and in pp collisions at , measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC, are reported. Within the experimental uncertainties and ranges covered by our measurement, these ratios are independent of rapidity, transverse momentum and multiplicity for all measured energies. The results are compared to expectations from event generators, such as PYTHIA and HIJING/B, that are used to model the particle production in pp collisions. The energy dependence of , , and , reaching values compatible with unity for , complement the earlier measurement of ALICE. These dependencies can be described by exchanges with the Regge-trajectory intercept of , which are suppressed with increasing rapidity interval Δy. Any significant contribution of an exchange not suppressed at large Δy (reached at LHC energies) is disfavoured.