Strangeness in nuclear collisions

Gazdzicki, Marek ; Rohrich, Dieter ;
Z.Phys.C 71 (1996) 55-64, 1996.
Inspire Record 420462 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.13638

Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton--proton and central nucleus--nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon--nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus--nucleus collisions than for nucleon--nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon--nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus--nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the Quark Gluon Plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies.

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Pion multiplicity in nuclear collisions

Gazdzicki, M. ; Roehrich, D. ;
Z.Phys.C 65 (1995) 215-223, 1995.
Inspire Record 398172 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14107

Data on the mean multiplicity ofπ- produced in minimum bias proton-proton, proton-neutron and proton-nucleus interactions as well as central nucleus-nucleus collisions at momenta of 1.4–400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled and studied. The results for neutron-neutron and nucleon-nucleon interactions were then constructed. The dependence of the mean pion multiplicity in proton-nucleus interactions and central collisions of identical nuclei are studied as a function of the collision energy and the nucleus mass number. The number of produced pions per participant nucleon in central collisions of identical nuclei is found to be independent of the number of participants at a fixed incident momentum per nucleon. The mean multiplicity of negatively charged hadrons per participant nucleon for central nucleus-nucleus collisions is lower by about 0.12 than the corresponding multiplicity for nucleon-nucleon interactions atpLAB≲15 A·GeV/c, whereas the result at 200 A·GeV/c is above the corresponding nucleon-nucleon multiplicity. This may indicate change of the collision dynamics at high energy.

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Proton-Proton Collisions at 4.2 Bev

Blue, M.H. ; Lord, J.J. ; Parks, J.G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev. 125 (1962) 1386-1393, 1962.
Inspire Record 944984 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.26806

Interactions between 4.15-Bev protons and the free hydrogen nuclei in nuclear emulsion are examined. The total elastic cross section from 27 events was determined to be 11.0±2.6 mb. On the basis of 113 interactions the total inelastic cross section was found to be 28.1±3.1 mb. The partial cross sections corresponding to inelastic collisions having two, four, six, and eight secondary particles were found to be respectively 16.3±2.4, 11.5±1.8, 0.2±0.1, and 0.1±0.1 mb. While the total inelastic cross section varies slowly with energy, the partial inelastic cross sections were found to be strongly energy dependent. The observed angular distribution of elastically scattered protons in the center-of-mass system was sharply peaked in the forward and backward directions, in fair agreement with calculations based on a simple optical model applicable for energies between 2 and 10 Bev. Particles produced in inelastic collisions were identified as pions or protons by measurements of energy loss and multiple scattering. For those particles identified, center-of-mass system distributions of energy, angle, and transverse momentum are presented.

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Hadron spectra in hadron - nucleus collisions

Armutliiski, D. ; Baatar, Ts. ; Batsaikhan, Ts. ; et al.
1991.
Inspire Record 319258 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38698
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Proton-proton collisions at 3.5 GeV

Piserchio, R.J. ; Kalbach, R.M. ;
Nuovo Cim. 26 (1962) 729-739, 1962.
Inspire Record 1185010 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.37708

Ilford G-5 emulsions were exposed to an external, 3.5 GeY proton beam of the Berkeley Bevatron. A total of 1200 nuclear interactions of beam protons was located, of which 128 were identified as protonproton collisions. Multiple scattering, blob density, range and angle measurements were employed to determine the cross-sections for elastic and inelastic interactions as well as the identities and center-of-mass system momenta and scattering angles of secondaries from inelastic proton-proton interactions. This analysis indicates a cross-section of (8.0±2.4) mb for elastic events, (24.1±2.9) mb for two-prong inelasitc events, (7.9±1.4)mb for four-prong events and (0.6±0.3) mb for sixprong events. The mean charged pion multiplicity in inelastic interactions is 1.5±0.2 and corresponds to an average degree of inelasticity of 0.45 ±0.06. Center-of-mass system angular distributions of charged secondaries from inelastic events display a peaking for small scattering angles which is most pronounced for protons and pions from events with low secondary multiplicity. Momentum and transverse momentum distributions of secondary protons and pions from inelastic events are presented and compared with the results at other energies. The angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is found to be in fair agreement with that predicted by a uniform optical model of radius 1.25-10-13 cm and opacity 0.66.

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Dihadron azimuthal correlations in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 78 (2008) 014901, 2008.
Inspire Record 778396 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96764

Azimuthal angle (Delta phi) correlations are presented for a broad range of transverse momentum (0.4 < pT < 10 GeV/c) and centrality (0-92%) selections for charged hadrons from di-jets in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. With increasing pT, the away-side Delta phi distribution evolves from a broad and relatively flat shape to a concave shape, then to a convex shape. Comparisons to p+p data suggest that the away-side distribution can be divided into a partially suppressed head region centered at Delta phi ~ \pi, and an enhanced shoulder region centered at Delta phi ~ \pi \pm 1:1. The pT spectrum for the associated hadrons in the head region softens toward central collisions. The spectral slope for the shoulder region is independent of centrality and trigger pT . The properties of the near-side distributions are also modified relative to those in p + p collisions, reflected by the broadening of the jet shape in Delta phi and Delta eta, and an enhancement of the per-trigger yield. However, these modifications seem to be limited to pT < 4 GeV/c, above which both the dihadron pair shape and per-trigger yield become similar to p + p collisions. These observations suggest that both the away- and near-side distributions contain a jet fragmentation component which dominates for pT \ge 5GeV and a medium-induced component which is important for pT \le 4 GeV/c. We also quantify the role of jets at intermediate and low pT through the yield of jet-induced pairs in comparison to binary scaled p + p pair yield. The yield of jet-induced pairs is suppressed at high pair proxy energy (sum of the pT magnitudes of the two hadrons) and is enhanced at low pair proxy energy. The former is consistent with jet quenching/ the latter is consistent with the enhancement of soft hadron pairs due to transport of lost energy to lower pT.

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RHS versus $p^b_T$ for p + p collisions for four trigger selections.

RHS versus $p^b_T$ for Au + Au collisions for four trigger selections.


Low-$p_T$ $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV at STAR

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 121 (2018) 132301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1676541 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.84821

We report first measurements of $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in the mass region 0.4 $

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The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

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Kaon Pair Production in Proton--Proton Collisions

The ANKE collaboration Maeda, Y. ; Hartmann, M. ; Keshelashvili, I. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 77 (2008) 015204, 2008.
Inspire Record 763646 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.25173

The differential and total cross sections for kaon pair production in the pp->ppK+K- reaction have been measured at three beam energies of 2.65, 2.70, and 2.83 GeV using the ANKE magnetic spectrometer at the COSY-Juelich accelerator. These near-threshold data are separated into pairs arising from the decay of the phi-meson and the remainder. For the non-phi selection, the ratio of the differential cross sections in terms of the K-p and K+p invariant masses is strongly peaked towards low masses. This effect can be described quantitatively by using a simple ansatz for the K-p final state interaction, where it is seen that the data are sensitive to the magnitude of an effective K-p scattering length. When allowance is made for a small number of phi events where the K- rescatters from the proton, the phi region is equally well described at all three energies. A very similar phenomenon is discovered in the ratio of the cross sections as functions of the K-pp and K+pp invariant masses and the identical final state interaction model is also very successful here. The world data on the energy dependence of the non-phi total cross section is also reproduced, except possibly for the results closest to threshold.

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Strange meson enhancement in Pb Pb collisions

The NA44 collaboration Bearden, I. ; Bøggild, H. ; Boissevain, J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 471 (1999) 6-12, 1999.
Inspire Record 504074 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.31360

The NA44 Collaboration has measured yields and differential distributions of K+, K-, pi+, pi- in transverse kinetic energy and rapidity, around the center-of-mass rapidity in 158 A GeV/c Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. A considerable enhancement of K+ production per pi is observed, as compared to p+p collisions at this energy. To illustrate the importance of secondary hadron rescattering as an enhancement mechanism, we compare strangeness production at the SPS and AGS with predictions of the transport model RQMD.

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Subthreshold K+ production in heavy ion collisions

Julien, J. ; Lebrun, D. ; Mougeot, A. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 264 (1991) 269-273, 1991.
Inspire Record 304290 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29376

The cross section for K + meson production in collisions of 36 Ar ions on a 48 Ti target has been measured at an incident energy of 92 MeV per nucleon. A description of the experimental set-up is given. Twelve events attributed to monoenergetic muons following the decay of stopped kaons have been identified. From these events, one infers a production cross section of 240 pb. Data are briefly discussed.

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