We present single inclusive π±, π0 andK± spectra in the forward fragmentation region (x>0.2,pT<1.5 GeV/c) as well as correlations between two charged particles. The data were recorded in an unseparated negative hadron beam at the CERN SPS using a large acceptance forward spectrometer. Our maasurements are compared in detail with several models which emphasise the role of the beam valence quarks in this production process. The connection to measurements at largepT is also investigated.
The production of W-pairs is analysed in a data sample collected by ALEPH at a mean centre-of-mass energy of 188.6 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 174.2 pb^-1. Cross sections are given for different topologies of W decays into leptons or hadrons. Combining all final states and assuming Standard Model branching fractions, the total W-pair cross section is measured to be 15.71 +- 0.34 (stat) +- 0.18 (syst) pb. Using also the W-pair data samples collected by ALEPH at lower centre-of-mass energies, the decay branching fraction of the W boson into hadrons is measured to be BR (W > hadrons) = 66.97 +- 0.65 (stat) +- 0.32 (syst) %, allowing a determination of the CKM matrix element |V(cs)|= 0.951 +- 0.030 (stat) +- 0.015 (syst).
The cross sections for single vector boson production in the We ν and Zee channels are measured from the data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP for centre-of-mass energies between 183 and 209 GeV. These data correspond to a total integratedluminosity of 683 pb −1 . Single-W production is studied in both hadronic and leptonic decay channels. Hadronic and dimuon decays are used for single-Z production. The measured cross sections agree with the Standard Model predictions.
The cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries of hadronic and leptonic events produced in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 130-183 GeV are presented. Results for ee, mumu, tautau, qq, bb and cc production show no significant deviation from the Standard Model predictions. This enable constraints to be set upon physics beyond the Standard Model such as four-fermion contact interactions, leptoquarks, Z' bosons and R-parity violating squarks and sneutrinos. Limits on the energy scale Lambda of eeff contact interactions are typically in the range from 2-10 TeV. Limits on R-parity violating sneutrinos reach masses of a few hundred GeV for large values of their Yukawa couplings.
The e + e − → W + W − cross section is measured in a data sample collected by ALEPH at a mean centre-of-mass energy of 172.09 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 10.65 pb −1 . Cross sections are given for the three topologies, fully leptonic, semi-leptonic and hadronic of a W-pair decay. Under the assumption that no other decay modes are present, the W-pair cross section is measured to be 11.7±1.2 (stat.) ±0.3 (syst.) pb . The existence of the triple gauge boson vertex of the Standard Model is clearly preferred by the data. The decay branching ratio of the W boson into hadrons is measured to be B(W→hadrons) =67.7±3.1 (stat.) ±0.7 (syst.) % , allowing a determination of the CKM matrix element | V cs |=0.98±0.14(stat.)±0.03(syst.).
The production of W+W- pairs is analysed in a data sample collected by ALEPH at a mean centre-of-mass energy of 182.7 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 57 pb-1. Cross sections are given for different topologies of W decays into leptons or hadrons. Under Standard Model assumptions for the W-pair production and decay, the W-pair cross section is measured to be 15.57+-0.62(stat.)+-0.29(syst.) pb. Using also the W-pair data samples collected by ALEPH at lower centre-of-mass energies, the decay branching ratio of the W boson into hadrons is measured to be B(W->hadrons)= 68.93+-1.21(stat.)+-0.51(syst.)%, allowing a determination of the CKM matrix element |Vcs|= 1.043 +- 0.058(stat.) +- 0.026(syst.). The agreement of the cross sections with the Standard Model prediction allows a limit to be set on the W decay rate to undetectable final states.
Four-fermion events have been selected in a data sample of 5.8 pb −1 collected with the aleph detector at centre-of-mass energies of 130 and 136 GeV. The final states ℓ + ℓ − q q , ℓ + ℓ − ℓ + ℓ − , ν ν q q , and ν ν ℓ + ℓ − have been examined. Five events are observed in the data, in agreement with the Standard Model predictions of 6.67±0.38 events from four-fermion processes and 0.14 −0.05 +0.19 from background processes.
In June 1996, the LEP centre-of-mass energy was raised to 161 GeV. Pair production of W bosons in e + e − collisions was observed for the first time by the LEP experiments. An integrated luminosity of 11 pb −1 was recorded in the ALEPH detector, in which WW candidate events were observed. In 6 events both Ws decay leptonically. In 16 events, one W decays leptonically, the other into hadrons. In the channel where both Ws decay into hadrons, a signal was separated from the large background by means of several multi-variate analyses. The W pair cross-section is measured to be σ WW = 4.23 ± 0.73 (stat.) ± 0.19 (syst.) pb. From this cross-section, the W mass is derived within the framework of the Standard Model: m W = 80.14 ± 0.34 (stat.) ± 0.09 (syst.) ± 0.03 (LEP energy) GeV/ c 2
Single top production via flavour changing neutral currents in the reactions e + e − → t ̄ c / u is searched for in approximately 411 pb −1 of data collected by ALEPH at centre-of-mass energies in the range between 189 and 202 GeV. In total, 58 events are selected in the data to be compared with 50.3 expected from Standard Model backgrounds. No deviation from the Standard Model expectation is observed. Upper limits at 95% CL on single top production cross sections at s =189 –202 GeV are derived. A model-dependent limit on the sum of branching ratios BR(t→Zc)+BR(t→Zu)<17% is obtained.
The production of final states involving one or more energetic photons from e + e − collisions is studied in a sample of 58.5 pb −1 of data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV by the ALEPH detector at LEP. The e + e − → ν ν ̄ γ(γ) and e + e − → γγ(γ) cross sections are measured. The data are in good agreement with predictions based on the Standard Model and are used to set upper limits on the cross sections for anomalous photon production in the context of two supersymmetric models and for various extensions to QED. In particular, in the context of a super-light gravitino model a cross section upper limit of 0.38 pb is placed on the process e + e − → G ̃ G ̃ γ , allowing a lower limit to be set on the mass of the gravitino. Limits are also set on the mass of the lightest neutralino in Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking models. In the case of equal ee ∗ γ and ee γ couplings a 95% C.L. lower limit on M e ∗ of 250 GeV /c 2 is obtained.