Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-HIN-23-003, 2024.
Inspire Record 2747107 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146016

Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 $\pm$ 0.002 (stat) $\pm$ 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 $\pm$ 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions.

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A search for bottom-type vector-like quark pair production in dileptonic and fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-B2G-20-014, 2024.
Inspire Record 2760468 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145997

A search is described for the production of a pair of bottom-type vector-like quarks (B VLQs) with mass greater than 1000 GeV. Each B VLQ decays into a b quark and a Higgs boson, a b quark and a Z boson, or a t quark and a W boson. This analysis considers both fully hadronic final states and those containing a charged lepton pair from a Z boson decay. The products of the H $to$ bb boson decay and of the hadronic Z or W boson decays can be resolved as two distinct jets or merged into a single jet, so the final states are classified by the number of reconstructed jets. The analysis uses data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ collected in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC from 2016 to 2018. No excess over the expected background is observed. Lower limits are set on the B VLQ mass at 95% confidence level. These depend on the B VLQ branching fractions and are 1570 and 1540 GeV for 100% B $\to$ bH and 100% B $\to$ bZ, respectively. In most cases, the mass limits obtained exceed previous limits by at least 100 GeV.

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Search for nearly mass-degenerate higgsinos using low-momentum mildly-displaced tracks in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Aakvaag, Erlend ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; et al.
CERN-EP-2024-012, 2024.
Inspire Record 2751400 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146944

Higgsinos with masses near the electroweak scale can solve the hierarchy problem and provide a dark matter candidate, while detecting them at the LHC remains challenging if their mass-splitting is $\mathcal{O}$(1 GeV). This Letter presents a novel search for nearly mass-degenerate higgsinos in events with an energetic jet, missing transverse momentum, and a low-momentum track with a significant transverse impact parameter using 140 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment. For the first time since LEP, a range of mass-splittings between the lightest charged and neutral higgsinos from 0.3 GeV to 0.9 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level, with a maximum reach of approximately 170 GeV in the higgsino mass.

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Measurement of $Z$ boson production cross-section in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 5.02$ TeV

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Abdelmotteleb, Ahmed Sameh Wagih ; Abellan Beteta, Carlos ; et al.
JHEP 02 (2024) 070, 2024.
Inspire Record 2690798 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.147274

The first measurement of the $Z$ boson production cross-section at centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s} = 5.02\,$TeV in the forward region is reported, using $pp$ collision data collected by the LHCb experiment in year 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $100 \pm 2\,\rm{pb^{-1}}$. The production cross-section is measured for final-state muons in the pseudorapidity range $2.0<\eta<4.5$ with transverse momentum $p_{\rm{T}}> 20\,\rm{GeV/}\it{c}$. The integrated cross-section is determined to be \[ \sigma_{Z \rightarrow \mu^{+}\mu^{-}} = 39.6 \pm 0.7\,(\rm{stat}) \pm 0.6\,(\rm{syst}) \pm 0.8\,(\rm{lumi}) \ \rm{pb} \] for the di-muon invariant mass in the range $60<M_{\mu\mu}<120\,\rm{GeV/}\it{c^{2}}$. This result and the differential cross-section results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order in the strong coupling. Based on a previous LHCb measurement of the $Z$ boson production cross-section in $p$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV, the nuclear modification factor $R_{p\rm{Pb}}$ is measured for the first time at this energy. The measured values are $1.2^{+0.5}_{-0.3}\,(\rm{stat}) \pm 0.1\,(\rm{syst})$ in the forward region ($1.53<y^*_{\mu}<4.03$) and $3.6^{+1.6}_{-0.9}\,(\rm{stat}) \pm 0.2\,(\rm{syst})$ in the backward region ($-4.97<y^*_{\mu}<-2.47$), where $y^*_{\mu}$ represents the muon rapidity in the centre-of-mass frame.

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Search for fractionally charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-EXO-19-006, 2024.
Inspire Record 2758805 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146758

A search is presented for fractionally charged particles with charge below 1$e$, using their small energy loss in the tracking detector as a key variable to observe a signal. The analyzed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions collected at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV in 2016-2018 at the CERN LHC. This is the first search at the LHC for new particles with charges between $e/$3 and $e$. Masses up to 640 GeV and charges as low as $e/$3 are excluded at 95% confidence level. These are the most stringent limits to date for the considered Drell-Yan-like production mode.

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Version 2
Observation of WW$\gamma$ production and search for H$\gamma$ production in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-SMP-22-006, 2023.
Inspire Record 2709669 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.144361

The observation of WW$\gamma$ production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ is presented. The observed (expected) significance is 5.6 (4.7) standard deviations. Events are selected by requiring exactly two leptons (one electron and one muon) of opposite charge, moderate missing transverse momentum, and a photon. The measured fiducial cross section for WW$\gamma$ is 6.0 $\pm$ 0.8 (stat) $\pm$ 0.7 (syst) $\pm$ 0.6 (modeling) fb, in agreement with the next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics prediction. The analysis is extended with a search for the associated production of the Higgs boson and a photon, which is generated by a coupling of the Higgs boson to light quarks. The result is used to constrain the Higgs boson couplings to light quarks.

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Search for pair production of scalar and vector leptoquarks decaying to muons and bottom quarks in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-EXO-21-019, 2024.
Inspire Record 2758137 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146074

A search for pair production of scalar and vector leptoquarks (LQs) each decaying to a muon and a bottom quark is performed using proton-proton collision data collected at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$. No excess above standard model expectation is observed. Scalar (vector) LQs with masses less than 1810 (2120) GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level, assuming a 100% branching fraction of the LQ decaying to a muon and a bottom quark. These limits represent the most stringent to date.

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Differential cross section measurements for the production of top quark pairs and of additional jets using dilepton events from pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration
CMS-TOP-20-006, 2024.
Inspire Record 2758138 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127702

Differential cross sections for top quark pair ($\mathrm{t\bar{t}}$) production are measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV using a sample of events containing two oppositely charged leptons. The data were recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$. The differential cross sections are measured as functions of kinematic observables of the $\mathrm{t\bar{t}}$ system, the top quark and antiquark and their decay products, as well as of the number of additional jets in the event. The results are presented as functions of up to three variables and are corrected to the parton and particle levels. When compared to standard model predictions based on quantum chromodynamics at different levels of accuracy, it is found that the calculations do not always describe the observed data. The deviations are found to be largest for the multi-differential cross sections.

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Search for light long-lived neutral particles from Higgs boson decays via vector-boson-fusion production from $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abeling, Kira ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-226, 2023.
Inspire Record 2728869 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145164

A search is reported for long-lived dark photons with masses between 0.1 GeV and 15 GeV, from exotic decays of Higgs bosons produced via vector-boson-fusion. Events that contain displaced collimated Standard Model fermions reconstructed in the calorimeter or muon spectrometer are probed. This search uses the full LHC Run 2 (2015-2018) data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 $fb^{-1}$. Dominant backgrounds from Standard Model processes and non-collision sources are estimated by using data-driven techniques. The observed event yields in the signal regions are consistent with the expected background. Upper limits on the Higgs boson to dark photon branching fraction are reported as a function of the dark-photon mean proper decay length or of the dark-photon mass and the coupling between the Standard Model and the potential dark sector. This search is combined with previous ATLAS searches obtained in the gluon-gluon fusion and \textit{WH} production modes. A branching fraction above 10% is excluded at 95% CL for a 125 GeV Higgs boson decaying into two dark photons for dark-photon mean proper decay lengths between 173 and 1296 mm and mass of 10 GeV.

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Search for heavy resonances in final states with four leptons and missing transverse momentum or jets in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Aakvaag, Erlend ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-291, 2024.
Inspire Record 2745376 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145687

A search for a new heavy boson produced via gluon-fusion in the four-lepton channel with missing transverse momentum or jets is performed. The search uses proton-proton collision data equivalent to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector between 2015 and 2018 at the Large Hadron Collider. This study explores the decays of heavy bosons: $R\rightarrow SH$ and $A\rightarrow ZH$, where $R$ is a CP-even boson, $A$ is a CP-odd boson, $H$ is a CP-even boson, and $S$ is considered to decay into invisible particles that are candidates for dark matter. In these processes, $S\rightarrow \textrm{invisible}$ and $H\rightarrow ZZ$. The $Z$ boson associated with the heavy scalar boson $H$ decays into all decay channels of the $Z$ boson. The mass range under consideration is 390-1300 (320-1300) GeV for the $R$ ($A$) boson and 220-1000 GeV for the $H$ boson. No significant deviation from the Standard Model backgrounds is observed. The results are interpreted as upper limits at a 95% confidence level on the cross-section times the branching ratio of the heavy resonances.

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