Measurement of $\phi$-meson production in Cu$+$Au at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV and U$+$U at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Abdulameer, N.J. ; Acharya, U. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2121010 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132483

The PHENIX experiment reports systematic measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider of $\phi$-meson production in asymmetric Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV and in U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=193 GeV. Measurements were performed via the $\phi\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ decay channel at midrapidity $|\eta|<0.35$. Features of $\phi$-meson production measured in Cu$+$Cu, Cu$+$Au, Au$+$Au, and U$+$U collisions were found to not depend on the collision geometry, which was expected because the yields are averaged over the azimuthal angle and follow the expected scaling with nuclear-overlap size. The elliptic flow of the $\phi$ meson in Cu$+$Au, Au$+$Au, and U$+$U collisions scales with second order participant eccentricity and the length scale of the nuclear overlap region (estimated with the number of participating nucleons). At moderate $p_T$, $\phi$-meson production measured in Cu$+$Au and U$+$U collisions is consistent with coalescence-model predictions, whereas at high $p_T$ the production is in agreement with expectations for in-medium energy loss of parent partons prior to their fragmentation. The elliptic flow for $\phi$ mesons measured in Cu$+$Au and U$+$U collisions is well described by a (2+1)D viscous-hydrodynamic model with specific-shear viscosity $\eta/s=1/4\pi$.

14 data tables

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (a) Cu+Au and (b) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (c) Cu+Au and (d) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity. Data-to- Levy fit ratios.

The $\phi$-meson nuclear modification factors $R_{AB}$ measured as a function of $p_T$ in different centrality intervals of (a) to (d) Cu+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV and (e) to (h) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 193 GeV at midrapidity $|\eta|<0.35$. The normalization uncertainty from p+p of about $\sim9.7\%$ is not shown.

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Nonprompt direct-photon production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
336 authors from 71 institutions, 26 pages, 30 figures, 4 tabels, 2014 data. Physical Review C. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.html, 2022.
Inspire Record 2061074 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129292

The measurement of the direct-photon spectrum from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV is presented by the PHENIX collaboration using the external-photon-conversion technique for 0%--93% central collisions in a transverse-momentum ($p_T$) range of 0.8--10 GeV/$c$. An excess of direct photons, above prompt-photon production from hard-scattering processes, is observed for $p_T<6$ GeV/$c$. Nonprompt direct photons are measured by subtracting the prompt component, which is estimated as $N_{\rm coll}$-scaled direct photons from $p$ $+$ $p$ collisions at 200 GeV, from the direct-photon spectrum. Results are obtained for $0.8<p_T<6.0$ GeV/$c$ and suggest that the spectrum has an increasing inverse slope from ${\approx}0.2$ to 0.4 GeV/$c$ with increasing $p_T$, which indicates a possible sensitivity of the measurement to photons from earlier stages of the evolution of the collision. In addition, like the direct-photon production, the $p_T$-integrated nonprompt direct-photon yields also follow a power-law scaling behavior as a function of collision-system size. The exponent, $\alpha$, for the nonprompt component is found to be consistent with 1.1 with no apparent $p_T$ dependence.

9 data tables

Direct photon $R_{\gamma}$, every 20% centrality

Direct photon $R_{\gamma}$, every 10% centrality

Invariant yield of direct photons, every 10% centrality

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Low-$p_T$ direct-photon production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2057344 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133218

The measurement of direct photons from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV in the transverse-momentum range $0.4<p_T<3$ Gev/$c$ is presented by the PHENIX collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. A significant direct-photon yield is observed in both collision systems. A universal scaling is observed when the direct-photon $p_T$ spectra for different center-of-mass energies and for different centrality selections at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ GeV is scaled with $(dN_{\rm ch}/d\eta)^{\alpha}$ for $\alpha=1.21{\pm}0.04$. This scaling also holds true for direct-photon spectra from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV measured earlier by PHENIX, as well as the spectra from Pb$+$Pb at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=2760$ GeV published by ALICE. The scaling power $\alpha$ seems to be independent of $p_T$, center of mass energy, and collision centrality. The spectra from different collision energies have a similar shape up to $p_T$ of 2 GeV/$c$. The spectra have a local inverse slope $T_{\rm eff}$ increasing with $p_T$ of $0.174\pm0.018$ GeV/$c$ in the range $0.4<p_T<1.3$ GeV/$c$ and increasing to $0.289\pm0.024$ GeV/$c$ for $0.9<p_T<2.1$ GeV/$c$. The observed similarity of low-$p_T$ direct-photon production from $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}= 39$ to 2760 GeV suggests a common source of direct photons for the different collision energies and event centrality selections, and suggests a comparable space-time evolution of direct-photon emission.

12 data tables

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

Direct photon spectra for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical and systematic uncertainties, unless the central value is negative (arrows) or is consistent with zero within the statistical uncertainties (arrows with data point). In these cases upper limit with CL = 95$%$ are given.

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Measurements of second-harmonic Fourier coefficients from azimuthal anisotropies in $p+p, p$+Au $d$+Au, and $^3$He + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2054927 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.136560

Recently, the PHENIX Collaboration has published second- and third-harmonic Fourier coefficients $v_2$ and $v_3$ for midrapidity ($|\eta|<0.35$) charged hadrons in 0%--5% central $p$$+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV utilizing three sets of two-particle correlations for two detector combinations with different pseudorapidity acceptance [Phys. Rev. C {\bf 105}, 024901 (2022)]. This paper extends these measurements of $v_2$ to all centralities in $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions, as well as $p$$+$$p$ collisions, as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) and event multiplicity. The kinematic dependence of $v_2$ is quantified as the ratio $R$ of $v_2$ between the two detector combinations as a function of event multiplicity for $0.5$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $1$ and $2$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $2.5$ GeV/$c$. A multiphase-transport (AMPT) model can reproduce the observed $v_2$ in most-central to midcentral $d$$+$Au and $^3$He$+$Au collisions. However, the AMPT model systematically overestimates the measurements in $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$Au, and peripheral $d$$+$Au and $^3$He$+$Au collisions, indicating a higher nonflow contribution in AMPT than in the experimental data. The AMPT model fails to describe the observed $R$ for $0.5$ $<$ $p_T$$<$ $1$ GeV/$c$, but there is qualitative agreement with the measurements for $2$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $2.5$ GeV/$c$.

18 data tables

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BB\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BF\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BB\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

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Study of $\phi$-meson production in $p+$Al, $p+$Au, $d+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 106 (2022) 014908, 2022.
Inspire Record 2050486 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130267

Small nuclear collisions are mainly sensitive to cold-nuclear-matter effects; however, the collective behavior observed in these collisions shows a hint of hot-nuclear-matter effects. The identified-particle spectra, especially the $\phi$ mesons which contain strange and antistrange quarks and have a relatively small hadronic-interaction cross section, are a good tool to study these effects. The PHENIX experiment has measured $\phi$ mesons in a specific set of small collision systems $p$$+$Al, $p$$+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au, as well as $d$$+$Au [Phys. Rev. C {\bf 83}, 024909 (2011)], at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. The transverse-momentum spectra and nuclear-modification factors are presented and compared to theoretical-model predictions. The comparisons with different calculations suggest that quark-gluon plasma may be formed in these small collision systems at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. However, the volume and the lifetime of the produced medium may be insufficient for observing strangeness-enhancement and jet-quenching effects. Comparison with calculations suggests that the main production mechanisms of $\phi$ mesons at midrapidity may be different in $p$$+$Al versus $p/d/$$^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. While thermal quark recombination seems to dominate in $p/d/$$^3$He$+$Au collisions, fragmentation seems to be the main production mechanism in $p$$+$Al collisions.

2 data tables

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (a) $p$+Al, (b) $p$+Au, and (c) $^{3}$He+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity.

Comparison of $\phi$-meson nuclear-modification factors in $p$+Al, $p$+Au, $d$+Au [2], and $^{3}$He+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity. The normalization uncertainty from $p$+$p$ of about $9.7 \%$ is not shown [28].


Measurement of Direct-Photon Cross Section and Double-Helicity Asymmetry at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV in $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ Collisions

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
347 authors from 70 institutions, 8 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, 2013 data. Physical Review Letters. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.html, 2022.
Inspire Record 2033856 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129088

We present the measurement of the cross section and double-helicity asymmetry $A_{LL}$ of direct-photon production in $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV. The measurement has been performed at midrapidity ($|\eta|<0.25$) with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Direct photons are dominantly produced by the quark-gluon scattering at relativistic energies. Direct photons are produced from the initial partonic hard scattering and do not interact via the strong force. Therefore, this measurement provides a clean and direct access to the gluons in the polarized proton in the gluon-momentum-fraction range $0.02<x<0.08$.

2 data tables

Cross sections for inclusive and isolated direct photons as a function of $p_T$. Not shown are 10% absolute luminosity uncertainties.

Double helicity asymmetry $A_{LL}$ $vs$ $p_{T}$ for isolated direct-photon production in polarized $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV at midrapidity. Not shown are $3.9 \times 10^{-4}$ shift uncertainty from relative luminosity and 6.6% scale uncertainty from polarization.


Systematic study of nuclear effects in $p$ $+$Al, $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV using $\pi^0$ production

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 064902, 2022.
Inspire Record 1965617 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115023

The PHENIX collaboration presents a systematic study of $\pi^0$ production from $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$Al, $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. Measurements were performed with different centrality selections as well as the total inelastic, 0%--100%, selection for all collision systems. For 0%--100% collisions, the nuclear modification factors, $R_{xA}$, are consistent with unity for $p_T$ above 8 GeV/$c$, but exhibit an enhancement in peripheral collisions and a suppression in central collisions. The enhancement and suppression characteristics are similar for all systems for the same centrality class. It is shown that for high-$p_T$-$\pi^0$ production, the nucleons in the $d$ and $^3$He interact mostly independently with the Au nucleus and that the counter intuitive centrality dependence is likely due to a physical correlation between multiplicity and the presence of a hard scattering process. These observations disfavor models where parton energy loss has a significant contribution to nuclear modifications in small systems. Nuclear modifications at lower $p_T$ resemble the Cronin effect -- an increase followed by a peak in central or inelastic collisions and a plateau in peripheral collisions. The peak height has a characteristic ordering by system size as $p$ $+$Au $>$ $d$ $+$Au $>$ $^{3}$He$+$Au $>$ $p$ $+$Al. For collisions with Au ions, current calculations based on initial state cold nuclear matter effects result in the opposite order, suggesting the presence of other contributions to nuclear modifications, in particular at lower $p_T$.

28 data tables

Differential cross section of $\pi^0$ in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

Invariant yield of $\pi^0$ from (a) p+Al, (b) p+Au, (c) d+Au, and (d) $^{3}$HeAu in different centrality selections at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

Nuclear modification factors from inelastic (a) p+Al, (b) p+Au, (c) d+Au, and (d) $^{3}$HeAu collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. The right boxes are the $N_{coll}$ uncertainties from the Glauber model, while the left box represents the overall normalization uncertainty from p+p collisions

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Kinematic dependence of azimuthal anisotropies in $p$ $+$ Au, $d$ $+$ Au, $^3$He $+$ Au at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV 

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 024901, 2022.
Inspire Record 2026169 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132366

There is strong evidence for the formation of small droplets of quark-gluon plasma in $p/d/^{3}$He+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and in $p$+$p$/Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, the analysis of data at RHIC for different geometries obtained by varying the projectile size and shape has proven insightful. In the present analysis, we find excellent agreement with the previously published PHENIX at RHIC results on elliptical and triangular flow with an independent analysis via the two-particle correlation method, which has quite different systematic uncertainties and an independent code base. In addition, the results are extended to other detector combinations with different kinematic (pseudorapidity) coverage. These results provide additional constraints on contributions from nonflow and longitudinal decorrelations.

59 data tables

$v_2$ vs $p_T$, p+Au at 200 GeV, 0-5% central, BBCS-FVTXS-CNT detector combination

$v_2$ vs $p_T$, d+Au at 200 GeV, 0-5% central, BBCS-FVTXS-CNT detector combination

$v_2$ vs $p_T$, 3He+Au at 200 GeV, 0-5% central, BBCS-FVTXS-CNT detector combination

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Production of $\pi^0$, $\eta$, and $K_S$ mesons in U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=192$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 064905, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798526 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132824

The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider measured $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons at midrapidity in U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=192$ GeV in a wide transverse momentum range. Measurements were performed in the $\pi^0(\eta)\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$ decay modes. A strong suppression of $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ meson production at high transverse momentum was observed in central U$+$U collisions relative to binary scaled $p$$+$$p$ results. Yields of $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons measured in U$+$U collisions show similar suppression pattern to the ones measured in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV for similar numbers of participant nucleons. The $\eta$/$\pi^0$ ratios do not show dependence on centrality or transverse momentum, and are consistent with previously measured values in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, nucleus-nucleus, and $e^+e^-$ collisions.

41 data tables

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 2a from minimum bias U+U collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 2a from 0-20% U+U collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 2a from 20-40% U+U collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

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Measurement of jet-medium interactions via direct photon-hadron correlations in Au$+$Au and $d$$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 054910, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798493 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101752

We present direct photon-hadron correlations in 200 GeV/A Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p collisions, for direct photon pT from 5–12 GeV/c, collected by the PHENIX Collaboration in the years from 2006 to 2011. We observe no significant modification of jet fragmentation in d+Au collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are small or absent. Hadrons carrying a large fraction of the quark's momentum are suppressed in Au+Au compared to p+p and d+Au. As the momentum fraction decreases, the yield of hadrons in Au+Au increases to an excess over the yield in p+p collisions. The excess is at large angles and at low hadron pT and is most pronounced for hadrons associated with lower momentum direct photons. Comparison to theoretical calculations suggests that the hadron excess arises from medium response to energy deposited by jets.

14 data tables

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in Au+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 5-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in d+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 7-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Integrated away-side $\gamma_{dir}$-h per-trigger yields of Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p, as a function of $\xi$.

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