Strong constraints on jet quenching in centrality-dependent $p$+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV from ATLAS

The ATLAS collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-086, 2022.
Inspire Record 2090791 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130943

Jet quenching is the process of color-charged partons losing energy via interactions with quark-gluon plasma droplets created in heavy-ion collisions. The collective expansion of such droplets is well described by viscous hydrodynamics. Similar evidence of collectivity is consistently observed in smaller collision systems, including $pp$ and $p$+Pb collisions. In contrast, while jet quenching is observed in Pb+Pb collisions, no evidence has been found in these small systems to date, raising fundamental questions about the nature of the system created in these collisions. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has measured the yield of charged hadrons correlated with reconstructed jets in 0.36 nb$^{-1}$ of $p$+Pb and 3.6 pb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at 5.02 TeV. The yields of charged hadrons with $p_\mathrm{T}^\mathrm{ch} >0.5$ GeV near and opposite in azimuth to jets with $p_\mathrm{T}^\mathrm{jet} > 30$ or 60 GeV, and the ratios of these yields between $p$+Pb and $pp$ collisions, $I_{p\mathrm{Pb}}$, are reported. The collision centrality of $p$+Pb events is categorized by the energy deposited by forward neutrons from the struck nucleus. The $I_{p\mathrm{Pb}}$ values are consistent with unity within a few percent for hadrons with $p_\mathrm{T}^\mathrm{ch} >4$ GeV at all centralities. These data provide new, strong constraints which preclude almost any parton energy loss in central $p$+Pb collisions.

8 data tables

The per-jet charged particle yield in pPb and pp collisions for hadrons near a $p_{T}^{\textrm{jet}} > 30~\textrm{GeV}$ jet ($\Delta\phi_{\textrm{ch,jet}} < \pi/8$).

The per-jet charged particle yield in pPb and pp collisions for hadrons opposite to a $p_{T}^{\textrm{jet}} > 30~\textrm{GeV}$ jet ($\Delta\phi_{\textrm{ch,jet}} > 7\pi/8$).

The per-jet charged particle yield in pPb and pp collisions for hadrons near a $p_{T}^{\textrm{jet}} > 60~\textrm{GeV}$ jet ($\Delta\phi_{\textrm{ch,jet}} < \pi/8$).

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Measurement of the nuclear modification factor for muons from charm and bottom hadrons in Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 829 (2022) 137077, 2022.
Inspire Record 1914582 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.111123

Heavy-flavour hadron production provides information about the transport properties and microscopic structure of the quark-gluon plasma created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. A measurement of the muons from semileptonic decays of charm and bottom hadrons produced in Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. The Pb+Pb data were collected in 2015 and 2018 with sampled integrated luminosities of $208~\mathrm{\mu b}^{-1}$ and $38~\mathrm{\mu b^{-1}}$, respectively, and $pp$ data with a sampled integrated luminosity of $1.17~\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$ were collected in 2017. Muons from heavy-flavour semileptonic decays are separated from the light-flavour hadronic background using the momentum imbalance between the inner detector and muon spectrometer measurements, and muons originating from charm and bottom decays are further separated via the muon track's transverse impact parameter. Differential yields in Pb+Pb collisions and differential cross sections in $pp$ collisions for such muons are measured as a function of muon transverse momentum from 4 GeV to 30 GeV in the absolute pseudorapidity interval $|\eta| < 2$. Nuclear modification factors for charm and bottom muons are presented as a function of muon transverse momentum in intervals of Pb+Pb collision centrality. The measured nuclear modification factors quantify a significant suppression of the yields of muons from decays of charm and bottom hadrons, with stronger effects for muons from charm hadron decays.

6 data tables

Summary of charm muon double differential cross section in pp collisions at 5.02 TeV as a function of pT. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

Summary of charm muon per-event invariant yields in Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV as a function of pT for five different centrality intervals. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

Summary of bottom muon per-event invariant yields in Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV as a function of pT for five different centrality intervals. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

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Two-particle azimuthal correlations in photonuclear ultraperipheral Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV with ATLAS

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 104 (2021) 014903, 2021.
Inspire Record 1842843 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114165

Two-particle long-range azimuthal correlations are measured in photonuclear collisions using 1.7 nb$^{-1}$ of 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Candidate events are selected using a dedicated high-multiplicity photonuclear event trigger, a combination of information from the zero-degree calorimeters and forward calorimeters, and from pseudorapidity gaps constructed using calorimeter energy clusters and charged-particle tracks. Distributions of event properties are compared between data and Monte Carlo simulations of photonuclear processes. Two-particle correlation functions are formed using charged-particle tracks in the selected events, and a template-fitting method is employed to subtract the non-flow contribution to the correlation. Significant nonzero values of the second- and third-order flow coefficients are observed and presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. The results are compared with flow coefficients obtained in proton-proton and proton-lead collisions in similar multiplicity ranges, and with theoretical expectations. The unique initial conditions present in this measurement provide a new way to probe the origin of the collective signatures previously observed only in hadronic collisions.

2 data tables

The measured $v_2$ and $v_3$ charged-particle anisotropies as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in photonuclear collisions

The measured $v_2$ and $v_3$ charged-particle anisotropies as a function of charged-particle transverse momentum in photonuclear collisions


Exclusive dimuon production in ultraperipheral Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV with ATLAS

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 104 (2021) 024906, 2021.
Inspire Record 1832628 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.104407

Exclusive dimuon production in ultraperipheral collisions (UPC), resulting from photon-photon interactions in the strong electromagnetic fields of colliding high-energy lead nuclei, $\mathrm{PbPb}(\gamma\gamma) \rightarrow \mu^+\mu^- (\mathrm{Pb}^{(\star)}\mathrm{Pb}^{(\star)} )$, is studied using $\mathcal{L}_{\mathrm{int}} = 0.48$ nb$^{-1}$ of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}=5.02$ TeV lead-lead collision data at the LHC with the ATLAS detector. Dimuon pairs are measured in the fiducial region $p_{\mathrm{T}\mu} > 4$ GeV, $|\eta_{\mu}| < 2.4$, invariant mass $m_{\mu\mu} > 10$ GeV, and $p_{\mathrm{T,\mu\mu}} < 2$ GeV. The primary background from single-dissociative processes is extracted from the data using a template fitting technique. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of $m_{\mu\mu}$, absolute pair rapidity ($|y_{\mu\mu}|$), scattering angle in the dimuon rest frame ($|\cos \vartheta^{\star}_{\mu\mu}|$) and the colliding photon energies. The total cross section of the UPC $\gamma \gamma \rightarrow \mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ process in the fiducial volume is measured to be $\sigma_{\mathrm{fid}}^{\mu\mu} = 34.1 \! \pm \! 0.3 \mathrm{(stat.)} \! \pm \! 0.7 \mathrm{(syst.)}$ $\mu\mathrm{b}$. Generally good agreement is found with calculations from STARlight, which incorporate the leading-order Breit-Wheeler process with no final-state effects, albeit differences between the measurements and theoretical expectations are observed. In particular, the measured cross sections at larger $|y_{\mu\mu}|$ are found to be about 10-20% larger in data than in the calculations, suggesting the presence of larger fluxes of photons in the initial state. Modification of the dimuon cross sections in the presence of forward and/or backward neutron production is also studied and is found to be associated with a harder incoming photon spectrum, consistent with expectations.

41 data tables

Differential UPC dimuon cross sections shown as a function of $|y_{\mu\mu}|$ in the interval $10 < |m_{\mu\mu}| < 20$ GeV.

Differential UPC dimuon cross sections shown as a function of $|y_{\mu\mu}|$ in the interval $20 < |m_{\mu\mu}| < 40$ GeV.

Differential UPC dimuon cross sections shown as a function of $|y_{\mu\mu}|$ in the interval $40 < |m_{\mu\mu}| < 80$ GeV.

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Measurement of light-by-light scattering and search for axion-like particles with 2.2 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb data with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
JHEP 11 (2021) 050, 2021.
Inspire Record 1811464 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95747

This paper describes a measurement of light-by-light scattering based on Pb+Pb collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment during Run 2 of the LHC. The study uses $2.2$ nb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected in 2015 and 2018 at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}=5.02$ TeV. Light-by-light scattering candidates are selected in events with two photons produced exclusively, each with transverse energy $E_{\mathrm{T}}^{\gamma} > 2.5$ GeV, pseudorapidity $|\eta_{\gamma}| < 2.37$, diphoton invariant mass $m_{\gamma\gamma} > 5$ GeV, and with small diphoton transverse momentum and diphoton acoplanarity. The integrated and differential fiducial cross sections are measured and compared with theoretical predictions. The diphoton invariant mass distribution is used to set limits on the production of axion-like particles. This result provides the most stringent limits to date on axion-like particle production for masses in the range 6-100 GeV. Cross sections above 2 to 70 nb are excluded at the 95% CL in that mass interval.

11 data tables

Measured differential fiducial cross sections of $\gamma\gamma \rightarrow \gamma\gamma$ production in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV for diphoton invariant mass are shown as points with error bars giving the statistical uncertainty and grey bands indicating the size of the total uncertainty. The results are compared with the prediction from the SuperChic v3.0 MC generator (solid line) with bands denoting the theoretical uncertainty.

Measured normalised differential fiducial cross sections of $\gamma\gamma \rightarrow \gamma\gamma$ production in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV for diphoton invariant mass are shown as points with error bars giving the statistical uncertainty and grey bands indicating the size of the total uncertainty. The results are compared with the prediction from the SuperChic v3.0 MC generator (solid line).

Measured differential fiducial cross sections of $\gamma\gamma \rightarrow \gamma\gamma$ production in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV for diphoton $|cos(\theta*)|$ are shown as points with error bars giving the statistical uncertainty and grey bands indicating the size of the total uncertainty. The results are compared with the prediction from the SuperChic v3.0 MC generator (solid line) with bands denoting the theoretical uncertainty.

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Measurement of azimuthal anisotropy of muons from charm and bottom hadrons in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 807 (2020) 135595, 2020.
Inspire Record 1784454 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95735

Azimuthal anisotropies of muons from charm and bottom hadron decays are measured in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}= 5.02$ TeV. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015 and 2018 with integrated luminosities of $0.5~\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ and $1.4~\mathrm{nb^{-1}}$, respectively. The kinematic selection for heavy-flavor muons requires transverse momentum $4 < p_\mathrm{T} < 30$ GeV and pseudorapidity $|\eta|<2.0$. The dominant sources of muons in this $p_\mathrm{T}$ range are semi-leptonic decays of charm and bottom hadrons. These heavy-flavor muons are separated from light-hadron decay muons and punch-through hadrons using the momentum imbalance between the measurements in the tracking detector and in the muon spectrometers. Azimuthal anisotropies, quantified by flow coefficients, are measured via the event-plane method for inclusive heavy-flavor muons as a function of the muon $p_\mathrm{T}$ and in intervals of Pb+Pb collision centrality. Heavy-flavor muons are separated into contributions from charm and bottom hadron decays using the muon transverse impact parameter with respect to the event primary vertex. Non-zero elliptic ($v_{2}$) and triangular ($v_{3}$) flow coefficients are extracted for charm and bottom muons, with the charm muon coefficients larger than those for bottom muons for all Pb+Pb collision centralities. The results indicate substantial modification to the charm and bottom quark angular distributions through interactions in the quark-gluon plasma produced in these Pb+Pb collisions, with smaller modifications for the bottom quarks as expected theoretically due to their larger mass.

6 data tables

Summary of results for Inclusive HF muon v2 as a function of pT for different centrality. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

Summary of results for Inclusive HF muon v3 as a function of pT for different centrality. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

Summary of results for charm muon v2 as a function of pT for different centrality. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

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Transverse momentum and process dependent azimuthal anisotropies in $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=8.16$ TeV $p$+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 73, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762209 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.94802

The azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles produced in $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=8.16$ TeV $p$+Pb collisions is measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of $165$ $\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ that was collected in 2016. Azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, elliptic $v_2$ and triangular $v_3$, extracted using two-particle correlations with a non-flow template fit procedure, are presented as a function of particle transverse momentum ($p_\mathrm{T}$) between $0.5$ and $50$ GeV. The $v_2$ results are also reported as a function of centrality in three different particle $p_\mathrm{T}$ intervals. The results are reported from minimum-bias events and jet-triggered events, where two jet $p_\mathrm{T}$ thresholds are used. The anisotropies for particles with $p_\mathrm{T}$ less than about $2$ GeV are consistent with hydrodynamic flow expectations, while the significant non-zero anisotropies for $p_\mathrm{T}$ in the range $9$-$50$ GeV are not explained within current theoretical frameworks. In the $p_\mathrm{T}$ range $2$-$9$ GeV, the anisotropies are larger in minimum-bias than in jet-triggered events. Possible origins of these effects, such as the changing admixture of particles from hard scattering and the underlying event, are discussed.

45 data tables

Distribution of $v_{2}$ from MBT events plotted as a function of the A-particle $p_\mathrm{T}$ for 0-5% centrality.

Distribution of $v_{2}$ from $p_{T}^{jet}>75$ GeV events plotted as a function of the A-particle $p_\mathrm{T}$ for 0-5% centrality.

Distribution of $v_{2}$ from $p_{T}^{jet}>100$ GeV events plotted as a function of the A-particle $p_\mathrm{T}$ for 0-5% centrality.

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Measurement of azimuthal anisotropy of muons from charm and bottom hadrons in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 124 (2020) 082301, 2020.
Inspire Record 1752509 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95128

The elliptic flow of muons from the decay of charm and bottom hadrons is measured in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV using a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 150 pb$^{-1}$ recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The muons from heavy-flavor decay are separated from light-hadron decay muons using momentum imbalance between the tracking and muon spectrometers. The heavy-flavor decay muons are further separated into those from charm decay and those from bottom decay using the distance-of-closest-approach to the collision vertex. The measurement is performed for muons in the transverse momentum range 4-7 GeV and pseudorapidity range $|\eta|<2.4$. A significant non-zero elliptic anisotropy coefficient $v_{2}$ is observed for muons from charm decays, while the $v_{2}$ value for muons from bottom decays is consistent with zero within uncertainties.

4 data tables

Summary of results for inclusive muon v2 as a function of multiplicity. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

Summary of results for inclusive muon v2 as a function of pT. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

Summary of results for charm and bottom muon v2 as a function of multiplicity. Uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

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Measurement of angular and momentum distributions of charged particles within and around jets in Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 100 (2019) 064901, 2019.
Inspire Record 1749578 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.91160

Studies of the fragmentation of jets into charged particles in heavy-ion collisions can provide information about the mechanism of jet-quenching by the hot and dense QCD matter created in such collisions, the quark-gluon plasma. This paper presents a measurement of the angular distribution of charged particles around the jet axis in $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=$ 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions, using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The Pb+Pb and $pp$ data sets have integrated luminosities of 0.49 nb$^{-1}$ and 25 pb$^{-1}$, respectively. The measurement is performed for jets reconstructed with the anti-$k_{t}$ algorithm with radius parameter $R = 0.4$ and is extended to an angular distance of $r= 0.8$ from the jet axis. Results are presented as a function of Pb+Pb collision centrality and distance from the jet axis for charged particles with transverse momenta in the 1$-$63 GeV range, matched to jets with transverse momenta in the 126$-$316 GeV range and an absolute value of jet rapidity of less than 1.7. Modifications to the measured distributions are quantified by taking a ratio to the measurements in $pp$ collisions. Yields of charged particles with transverse momenta below 4 GeV are observed to be increasingly enhanced as a function of angular distance from the jet axis, reaching a maximum at $r=0.6$. Charged particles with transverse momenta above 4 GeV have an enhanced yield in Pb+Pb collisions in the jet core for angular distances up to $r = 0.05$ from the jet axis, with a suppression at larger distances.

395 data tables

D(pT,r)_PbPb The charged particle distributions around jets as a function of distance from the jet axis in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV for different centrality, track pT and jet pT ranges.

D(pT,r)_PbPb The charged particle distributions around jets as a function of distance from the jet axis in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV for different centrality, track pT and jet pT ranges.

D(pT,r)_PbPb The charged particle distributions around jets as a function of distance from the jet axis in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV for different centrality, track pT and jet pT ranges.

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Measurement of $W^\pm $ boson production in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02~\text {Te}\text {V}$ with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 79 (2019) 935, 2019.
Inspire Record 1746053 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.91908

A measurement of $W^\pm$ boson production in lead-lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV is reported using data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of $0.49\;\mathrm{nb^{-1}}$. The $W^\pm$ bosons are reconstructed in the electron or muon leptonic decay channels. Production yields of leptonically decaying $W^\pm$ bosons, normalised by the total number of minimum-bias events and the nuclear thickness function, are measured within a fiducial region defined by the detector acceptance and the main kinematic requirements. These normalised yields are measured separately for $W^+$ and $W^-$ bosons, and are presented as a function of the absolute value of pseudorapidity of the charged lepton and of the collision centrality. The lepton charge asymmetry is also measured as a function of the absolute value of lepton pseudorapidity. In addition, nuclear modification factors are calculated using the $W^\pm$ boson production cross-sections measured in $pp$ collisions. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-leading-order calculations with CT14 parton distribution functions as well as with predictions obtained with the EPPS16 and nCTEQ15 nuclear parton distribution functions. No dependence of normalised production yields on centrality and a good agreement with predictions are observed for mid-central and central collisions. For peripheral collisions, the data agree with predictions within 1.7 (0.9) standard deviations for $W^-$ ($W^+$) bosons.

10 data tables

Differential normalised production yields for $W^+$ bosons as a function of absolute pseudorapidity of the charged lepton for the combined electron and muon channels. Systematic uncertainties related to $T_{\mathrm{AA}}$ are not included.

Differential normalised production yields for $W^-$ bosons as a function of absolute pseudorapidity of the charged lepton for the combined electron and muon channels. Systematic uncertainties related to $T_{\mathrm{AA}}$ are not included.

Combined result for lepton charge asymmetry.

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