Seventeen differential cross sections of the pion-nucleon charge-exchange reaction have been measured at total center-of-mass energies of 1245, 1337, and 1363 MeV. Most measurements are based on the neutron-photon coincidence method, using carefully calibrated neutron counters and an efficient, large-area photon detector. The results are used to test the predictions of charge independence, with which they agree. The results also confirm the Ayed-Bareyre-Sonderegger phase-degeneracy hypothesis at θ̃π0=180°.
The π − p→n γ and π − p→n π ° differential cross sections have been measured for −0.9< cos θ ∗ <−0.45 (θ ∗ c.m. scattering angle) at 475 MeV/ c and 550 MeV/ c incident momenta. The π − p→n γ measurement is a good check of the detailed balance principle in the electromagnetic interactions of hadrons at these energies and is in good agreement with Walker's analysis. On the other hand the π − p→ π °n extrapolated values of 180° allows one to verify that the phases of the A 1 2 and A 3 2 amplitudes are equal.
A precise measurement of the differential cross section at zero degrees for the pion charge-exchange reaction π−p→π0n at pπ=522 MeV/c has been made. The result is dσdΩ (0∘)=4.32±0.11 mb/sr.
The π−p charge-exchange analyzing power has been measured from 547 to 687 MeV/c in the center-of-mass angular range -0.9≤cosθ̃π≤0.9 using a transversely polarized target. The recoil neutron was detected in coincidence with a photon from π0 decay. The results are compared with the three recent partial-wave analyses (PWA’s); the VPI analysis is most consistent with our measured distributions except at 687 MeV/c where no PWA agrees with our data. The charge-exchange transversity cross sections are evaluated using the differential cross sections of Borcherding et al. These transversity cross sections are used in conjunction with earlier π±p data by our group to test the triangle inequalities which are a model-independent test of isospin invariance. Our data satisfy these inequalities everywhere; in contrast, Abaev et al. have reported a violation of more than 5 standard deviations at 685 MeV/c.
Differential cross sections for π−p→γn have been determined from 427 to 625 MeV/c, mainly at 90° and 110° c.m. The data were obtained by combining measurements of the Panofsky ratio in flight with known charge-exchange cross sections. The results are compared with γn→π−p data derived from γd experiments; the difference is typically 30%. The radiative decay amplitudes of neutral πN resonances are therefore uncertain by at least 30%.
The forward charge-exchange differential cross section has been measured using two Čerenkov spectrometers at five energies of incident pions. The resulting cross-section values are 4.02 ± 0.22, 3.61 ± 0.13, 4.19 ± 0.13, 3.91 ± 0.12, 3.02 ± 0.14 mb/sr at incident pion energies 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 MeV, respectively. These values are in a good agreement with dispersion-relation predictions.
Measurements have been made of the total charge-exchange cross section π − p to π 0 n over the laboratory kinetic energy range 90 to 290 MeV. The data have an absolute accuracy of typically 1%, and have here been used to determine the pion-nucleon P 13 phase shift.
The analyzing power of π−p→π0n has been measured for pπ=301−625 MeV/c with a transversely polarized target, mainly in the backward hemisphere. The final-state neutron and a γ from the π0 were detected in coincidence with two counter arrays. Our results are compared with predictions of recent πN partial-wave analyses by the groups of Karlsruhe-Helsinki, Carnegie-Mellon University-Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (CMU-LBL), and Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI). At the lower incident energies little difference is seen among the three analyses, and there is excellent agreement with our data. At 547 MeV/c and above, our data strongly favor the VPI phases, and disagree with Karlsruhe-Helsinki and CMU-LBL analyses, which are the source of the πN resonance parameters given in the Particle Data Group table.
The analyzing power for π−p→π0n has been measured at five incident momenta from 547 to 687 MeV/c using a transversely polarized target. Data were obtained with scintillation counters at 10 angles simultaneously covering the range −0.9≤cosθc.m.π≤0.9. Our results and those of Kim et al. are used for a model-independent test of isospin invariance which is based on the triangle inequalities applied to the transversity-up as well as the transversity-down cross sections. No evidence is found of isospin violation.
The asymmetry parameter A in π−p elastic scattering at incident pion laboratory kinetic energies Tπ of 98, 238, and 2922 MeV and in π−p charge-exchange scattering π−p→π0n at Tπ=238, 292, and 310 MeV have been measured over a wide range of scattering angles (typically from about 60° to 130° c.m.) with a polarized proton target. The data have been used in an energy-independent phase-shift analysis to improve the precision of the pion-nucleon phase shifts, to set new limits on violation of isospin conservation in the pion-nucleon S wave, and to confirm significant charge dependence in the P32 wave.
The differential cross section for charge-exchange scattering of negative pions by hydrogen has been observed at 230, 260, 290, 317, and 371 Mev. The reaction was observed by detecting one gamma ray from the π0 decay with a scintillation-counter telescope. A least-squares analysis was performed to fit the observations to the function dσdω=Σl=15alPl−1(cosθ) in the c.m. frame. The best fit to our experimental measurements requires only s- and p-wave scattering. The results (in mb) are: The least-squares analysis indicates that d-wave scattering is not established in this energy range.
Neutron angular distributions from the charge-exchange (π0n) and inelastic modes (π0π0n,π+π−n) of the π−−p interaction have been investigated at 313 and 371 MeV incident-pion kinetic energy. The data were obtained with an electronic counter system. Elastic and inelastic neutrons were separated in the all-neutral final states by time of flight. At both energies the charge-exchange differential cross section at the forward neutron angles differs from that determined by Caris et al. from measurements of the π0-decay gamma distributions, but generally agrees with the phase-shift-analysis calculations of Roper. The distribution of inelastic neutrons from both modes shows a strong preference for low center-of-mass neutron energies. The distribution of these neutrons does not correspond to that expected from the I=0, π−π interaction (ABC effect) suggested to account for the anomaly in p−d collisions observed by Abashian et al. Finally, all available charge-exchange differential-cross-section data from this and other experiments were combined by at least-squares fit to a Legendre expansion of the form dσdΩ*(cosθπ0*)=Σl=0NalPl(cosθπ0*) with the following results (in mb/sr):
The results are given of the measurement of the differential cross sections of charge-exchange scattering of 240, 270, 307, and 333-Mev 1r- mesons on hydrogen.
The most recent total-cross-section data are used to calculate real parts of the forward elastic π±p scattering amplitudes from threshold to 240 GeV/c. Using statistical and systematic uncertainties of the total cross sections and their momenta, along with uncertainties of the subtraction and coupling constants, unphysical cuts, and cross-section extrapolations, we calculate the uncertainties of the real amplitudes. Our results are compared to experimental and other theoretical determinations of the π±p forward real amplitudes.