Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B710 (2012) 363-382, 2012.
Inspire Record 925723 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.57910

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |eta| < 2 in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point 'tracklets' and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 < |eta| < 4.9. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle density distribution, dN_ch/deta, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |eta|<0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle yield per colliding nucleon pair with the number of participants is consistent with the lower sqrt(s_NN) results. The shape of the dN_ch/deta distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement.

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The measured charged particle density distributions as a fuinction of pseudorapidity in the centrality regions 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 %.

The measured charged particle density distributions as a fuinction of pseudorapidity in the centrality regions 40-50, 50-60, 60-70 and 70-80 %.

Mean values of the charged particle multiplicities in the pseudorapidiy range -0.5-0.5 as a function of centrality. N(C=PART), the number of participating nucleons in the collision, is also shown, determined from the muliplicity and ET of the event, with which it has been shown to be strongly correlated.


Measurement of the azimuthal anisotropy for charged particle production in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C86 (2012) 014907, 2012.
Inspire Record 1093733 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.59488

Differential measurements of charged particle azimuthal anisotropy are presented for lead-lead collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, based on an integrated luminosity of approximately 8 mb^-1. This anisotropy is characterized via a Fourier expansion of the distribution of charged particles in azimuthal angle (phi), with the coefficients v_n denoting the magnitude of the anisotropy. Significant v_2-v_6 values are obtained as a function of transverse momentum (0.5<pT<20 GeV), pseudorapidity (|eta|<2.5) and centrality using an event plane method. The v_n values for n>=3 are found to vary weakly with both eta and centrality, and their pT dependencies are found to follow an approximate scaling relation, v_n^{1/n}(pT) \propto v_2^{1/2}(pT). A Fourier analysis of the charged particle pair distribution in relative azimuthal angle (Dphi=phi_a-phi_b) is performed to extract the coefficients v_{n,n}=<cos (n Dphi)>. For pairs of charged particles with a large pseudorapidity gap (|Deta=eta_a-eta_b|>2) and one particle with pT<3 GeV, the v_{2,2}-v_{6,6} values are found to factorize as v_{n,n}(pT^a,pT^b) ~ v_n(pT^a)v_n(pT^b) in central and mid-central events. Such factorization suggests that these values of v_{2,2}-v_{6,6} are primarily due to the response of the created matter to the fluctuations in the geometry of the initial state. A detailed study shows that the v_{1,1}(pT^a,pT^b) data are consistent with the combined contributions from a rapidity-even v_1 and global momentum conservation. A two-component fit is used to extract the v_1 contribution. The extracted v_1 is observed to cross zero at pT\sim1.0 GeV, reaches a maximum at 4-5 GeV with a value comparable to that for v_3, and decreases at higher pT.

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The EP Resolution Factor vs. Centrality for n values from2 to 6.

The Chi Reolution Factor vs. Centrality for n values from 2 to 6.

The one-dimensional Delta(PHI) correlation function vs Delta(PHI) for |DETARAP| in the range 2 to 5 summed over all n values from 1 to 6.

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Measurement of the pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow of charged particles in lead-lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B707 (2012) 330-348, 2012.
Inspire Record 925720 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58021

This paper describes the measurement of elliptic flow of charged particles in lead-lead collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are based on an integrated luminosity of approximately 7 ub^-1. Elliptic flow is measured over a wide region in pseudorapidity, |eta| < 2.5, and over a broad range in transverse momentum, 0.5 < p_T < 20 GeV. The elliptic flow parameter v_2 is obtained by correlating individual tracks with the event plane measured using energy deposited in the forward calorimeters. As a function of transverse momentum, v_2(p_T) reaches a maximum at p_T of about 3 GeV, then decreases and becomes weakly dependent on p_T above 7 - 8 GeV. Over the measured pseudorapidity region, v_2 is found to be approximately independent of |eta| for all collision centralities and particle transverse momenta, something not observed in lower energy collisions. The results are discussed in the context of previous measurements at lower collision energies, as well as recent results from the LHC.

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v2(pT) for centrality interval 0-10% and |eta| <1.

v2(pT) for centrality interval 10-20% and |eta| <1.

v2(pT) for centrality interval 20-30% and |eta| <1.

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Measurement of inclusive jet charged-particle fragmentation functions in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B739 (2014) 320-342, 2014.
Inspire Record 1300152 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64272

Measurements of charged-particle fragmentation functions of jets produced in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions can provide insight into the modification of parton showers in the hot, dense medium created in the collisions. ATLAS has measured jets in sNN=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC using a data set recorded in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 nb −1 . Jets were reconstructed using the anti- kt algorithm with distance parameter values R=0.2,0.3,and 0.4 . Distributions of charged-particle transverse momentum and longitudinal momentum fraction are reported for seven bins in collision centrality for R=0.4 jets with pTjet>100 GeV . Commensurate minimum pT values are used for the other radii. Ratios of fragment distributions in each centrality bin to those measured in the most peripheral bin are presented. These ratios show a reduction of fragment yield in central collisions relative to peripheral collisions at intermediate z values, 0.04≲z≲0.2 , and an enhancement in fragment yield for z≲0.04 . A smaller, less significant enhancement is observed at large z and large pT in central collisions.

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Differences of D(Z) distributions in different centralities with respect to peripheral events for R = 0.3 jets. The errors represent combined statistical and systematic uncertainties.

Differences of D(Z) distributions in different centralities with respect to peripheral events for R = 0.2 jets. The errors represent combined statistical and systematic uncertainties.

D(z) distribution for R=0.4 jets.

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Measurement of the distributions of event-by-event flow harmonics in lead-lead collisions at = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abajyan, Tatevik ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
JHEP 1311 (2013) 183, 2013.
Inspire Record 1233359 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62783

The distributions of event-by-event harmonic flow coefficients v_n for n=2-4 are measured in sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed using charged particles with transverse momentum pT> 0.5 GeV and in the pseudorapidity range |eta|<2.5 in a dataset of approximately 7 ub^-1 recorded in 2010. The shapes of the v_n distributions are described by a two-dimensional Gaussian function for the underlying flow vector in central collisions for v_2 and over most of the measured centrality range for v_3 and v_4. Significant deviations from this function are observed for v_2 in mid-central and peripheral collisions, and a small deviation is observed for v_3 in mid-central collisions. It is shown that the commonly used multi-particle cumulants are insensitive to the deviations for v_2. The v_n distributions are also measured independently for charged particles with 0.5<pT<1 GeV and pT>1 GeV. When these distributions are rescaled to the same mean values, the adjusted shapes are found to be nearly the same for these two pT ranges. The v_n distributions are compared with the eccentricity distributions from two models for the initial collision geometry: a Glauber model and a model that includes corrections to the initial geometry due to gluon saturation effects. Both models fail to describe the experimental data consistently over most of the measured centrality range.

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The relationship between centrality intervals and MEAN(Npart) estimated from the Glauber model.

The MEAN(Npart) dependence of MEAN(V2) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

The MEAN(Npart) dependence of SIGMA(V2) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

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Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}=2.76$  TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C74 (2014) 3157, 2014.
Inspire Record 1311487 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65771

ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}=2.76$  TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7  $\upmu $ b$^{-1}$ collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta $0.5<p_{\mathrm {T}}<20$  GeV and in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta |<2.5$ . The anisotropy is characterized by the Fourier coefficients, $\mathrm {v}_n$ , of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for $n = 2$ –4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the $\mathrm {v}_n$ coefficients are presented. The elliptic flow, $\mathrm {v}_2$ , is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, $\mathrm {v}_3$ and $\mathrm {v}_4$ , are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics $\mathrm {v}_n$ measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to $\mathrm {v}_n$ measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. Models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.

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The second flow harmonic measured with the two-particle cumulants as a function of transverse momentum in centrality bin 0-2%.

The second flow harmonic measured with the two-particle cumulants as a function of transverse momentum in centrality bin 2-5%.

The second flow harmonic measured with the two-particle cumulants as a function of transverse momentum in centrality bin 5-10%.