Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of negative kaons on protons are presented for 13 incident laboratory momenta between 1094 MeV/c and 1377 MeV/c. The data show the characteristic forward diffraction-like peak and backward dip and are adequately described in shape by certain published partial-wave analyses of the N system.
Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of negative kaons on protons are presented for 19 momenta between 1.732 GeV/ c and 2.466 GeV/ c . The general features of the cross sections are discussed.
Differential cross sections for elastic π±−p scattering have been measured at lab momenta of 8 and 12 GeV/c in a momentum-transfer region corresponding to 1.2≤−t≤6 (GeV/c)2. Also, differential cross sections near 180° were measured for 4 and 8 GeV/c pions. At momentum transfers greater than −t=2 (GeV/c)2, the π−p cross sections drop much faster with increasing angle than the corresponding p−p cross sections. Also, in the region −t≃1.3 (GeV/c)2, there is structure in the π−p angular distribution but not in the p−p angular distribution. At −t≃3 (GeV/c)2, the drop in cross section appears to stop and from then on the angular distribution is consistent with isotropy. But in the angular region 170° to 180°, the cross sections have become much larger, and sharp backward peaks are observed. Information is given on the energy and charge dependences and widths of these backward peaks.
Differential cross sections for π + p and π − p elastic scattering have been measured with an accuracy of typically ±2% at 10 and 9 energies respectively in the range 88 to 292 MeV of lab kinetic energy.
π±p elastic differential cross sections in the momentum range 1.72-2.80 GeV/c have been measured at the proton synchrotron "NIMROD" of the Rutherford High Energy Laboratory. The results are tabulated, and analyses of the differential cross sections employing optical models and Legendre polynomial expansions are advanced. A critical discussion of a recent interpretation of differential-cross-section structure in terms of interference between resonant and background amplitudes is presented.
The differential cross sections for π − p elastic scattering have been measured near 180°, in the momentum range 875–1580 MeV/c. The results are compared with recent phase shift analysis, showing some notable discrepancies.
We have measured the differential cross section of the reaction π − p→ π − p in the range 0.92 ⩽ cos θ c.m. ⩽ 0.99 at 15 momenta between 0.875 and 1.580 GeV/ c . The results we report complete the available data; previous measurements of this reaction do not extend beyond cos θ c.m. =0.90. We compare our experimental results with dispersion relation predictions. A comparison of our results for B , the slope of the differential cross section, with earlier results shows many discrepancies.
Differential cross sections for pi- p and pi+ p elastic scattering were measured at five energies between 19.9 and 43.3 MeV. The use of the CHAOS magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF, supplemented by a range telescope for muon background suppression, provided simultaneous coverage of a large part of the full angular range, thus allowing very precise relative cross section measurements. The absolute normalisation was determined with a typical accuracy of 5 %. This was verified in a simultaneous measurement of muon proton elastic scattering. The measured cross sections show some deviations from phase shift analysis predictions, in particular at large angles and low energies. From the new data we determine the real part of the isospin forward scattering amplitude.
A precision measurement of absolute pi+p and pi-p elastic differential cross sections at incident pion laboratory kinetic energies from T_pi= 141.15 to 267.3 MeV is described. Data were obtained detecting the scattered pion and recoil proton in coincidence at 12 laboratory pion angles from 55 to 155 degrees for pi+p, and six angles from 60 to 155 degrees for pi-p. Single arm measurements were also obtained for pi+p energies up to 218.1 MeV, with the scattered pi+ detected at six angles from 20 to 70 degrees. A flat-walled, super-cooled liquid hydrogen target as well as solid CH2 targets were used. The data are characterized by small uncertainties, ~1-2% statistical and ~1-1.5% normalization. The reliability of the cross section results was ensured by carrying out the measurements under a variety of experimental conditions to identify and quantify the sources of instrumental uncertainty. Our lowest and highest energy data are consistent with overlapping results from TRIUMF and LAMPF. In general, the Virginia Polytechnic Institute SM95 partial wave analysis solution describes our data well, but the older Karlsruhe-Helsinki PWA solution KH80 does not.
Backward elastic scattering has been measured for π + p at 2.85 and 3.30 GeV/ c and for π − p at 3.30 GeV/ c . The π + p angular distributions show steep backward peaks, whereas the π − p distribution is flatter. At 2.85 GeV/ c the π + p differential cross section close to 180° is more than twice that at 3.30 GeV/ c , supporting the assignment J P = 11 2 + for Δ δ (2420) resonance. The π + p data at 2.85 GeV/ c indicate the onset of a dip at cos θ c.m. ≈ −0.97.
The energy dependence of the differential cross section for $\pi^+ p$ elastic scattering at a c.m. angle near 174 ° has been measured. The momentum range of incident $\pi^+$ was 2.06-4.70 GeV/c. On this energy dependence one can see a structure, i.e. maxima corresponding to the baryon resonances $\Delta(2420)$ and $\Delta(2840)$. The structure is used for determination of the parities of these resonances.
An investigation of π−+p elastic scattering, made in a liquid propane bubble chamber, is reported. Identification of events is made on the basis of kinematics. The problem of contamination by pion scattering from protons bound in carbon is considered in some detail; it is shown that the latter requires a correction of only 4±2.5% of the total number of events. The angular distribution is presented. It shows a large diffraction peak at small angles and an approximately isotropic plateau over the backward hemisphere. The forward peak is fitted to a black-sphere diffraction pattern with a radius of (1.08±0.06)×10−13 cm. The total elastic cross section is found to be σe=10.1±0.80 mb.
The energy dependence of the K−-nucleon total cross sections has been measured over the K− momentum range 0.98-3.98 Bev/c. K−−n cross sections were obtained by deuterium-hydrogen subtraction, with a correction for screening effects. There is evidence for structure in the T=0 K−-nucleon state in the momentum range 0.98-2.0 Bev/c. This structure is absent in the T=1 state. In addition, a measurement was made at 1.95 Bev/c of the angular distribution of the K−−p elastic scattering at small angles. The forward-scattering amplitude obtained from the data gives a ratio of real part to imaginary part 0.5±0.2 at 00. The corresponding ratio for π− mesons at this momentum was found to be 0.4−0.4+0.2. Measurements of the K−−p "elastic" charge exchange gives a cross section which falls from about 10 mb at 1 Bev/c to at most a few mb at 4 Bev/c.
Protons of the internal circulating beam of the Bevatron were scattered in a polyethylene target. Both scattered and recoil protons were detected by scintillation counters at angles which define elastic proton-proton events. An internal counter was located within a few inches of the beam to permit measurements at laboratory scattering angles as low as 2°. Absolute values are based on the calibration of the induction electrode that monitors the circulating beam. Total elastic cross sections obtained by integrating the differential spectra are 17, 10, and 8 mb at 2.24, 4.40, and 6.15 Bev, respectively. The experimental angular distributions are consistent with the prediction of a simple optical model with a complex index of refraction at short range.
The elastic differential cross section for the scattering of negative pions by hydrogen was measured at laboratory-system pion kinetic energies of 230, 290, 370, and 427 Mev. The elastically scattered pions were detected by a counter telescope which discriminated against recoil protons and inelastic pions on the basis of range. Differential cross sections were obtained at nine angles for each energy and were fitted by a least-squares program to a series of Legendre polynomials. At the three higher energies, D waves are required to give satisfactory fits to the data. The real parts of the forward-scattering amplitudes calculated from this experiment are in agreement with the predictions of dispersion theory. The results of this experiment, in conjunction with data from other pion-nucleon scattering experiments, support the hypothesis of charge independence at these higher energies.
The Berkeley 15-in. hydrogen bubble chamber was used to investigate π+−p interactions at 600 MeV. There were 1738 good events, of which 71.9±0.8% were elastic. Partial waves up to at least D52 are required to fit the elastic angular distribution. The inelastic events were almost entirely single-pion production. The ratio (p+0)(n++) was found to be 5.5±0.8 which agrees well with 4.9 predicted by the (32, 32) pion-nucleon isobar model of Olsson and Yodh. It is also consistent with 6.5 predicted by Sternheimer and Lindenbaum. The pion momentum spectra and the π−π Q-value distributions also support the Olsson and Yodh model. Thus the (32, 32) pion-nucleon isobar is apparently the principal mechanism for single-pion production at 600 MeV. Angular distributions for the single-pion-production data are presented.
Polarization and differential cross-section data for elastic scattering of negative kaons on polarized protons between 865 and 1330 MeV/ c are presented. Comparisons are made with predictions given by published energy dependent phase-shift analyses. The Legendre expansion coefficients characterizing the polarization distributions show remarkable structures resulting from excitation of Λ- and Σ-resonances. An analysis of the elastic and charge-exchange data in this region of momenta supports the assignments of J P = 3 2 + for the Λ(1870) resonance. The occurence of zero crossings in the polarization data is discussed.
Differential cross sections are presented for pion-proton elastic scattering in the angular range −0.6≳cosθc.m.≳−0.98 at 15 incident π+ momenta from 2.18−5.25 GeVc. The angular distributions rise steeply near 180° at all momenta. For laboratory momenta ≳2.75 GeVc they show a minimum at u≈−0.17 (GeVc)2 and a broad maximum near u≈−0.6 (GeVc)2. When the data are plotted versus s, for fixed u, a strong signal from the Δ(2420) resonance is observed. The data are compared with a direct-channel resonance model and with a Regge model which considers the exchange of the Nα, Nγ, and Δδ Regge trajectories. The qualitative success of both the direct-channel resonance model and the Regge model lends support to the concept of duality.
The π + p cross section for elastic scattering from hydrogen was measured at seven incident energies ranging from 20.8 to 95.9 MeV for an angular range from 60° to 145°. The experimental set-up is discussed in detail as well as the method used for data analysis. A table of results and a set of phase shifts are provided.
In the energy region around 380 keV (lab.) and at detection angles near 45° (lab.) the cross section of proton-proton scattering exhibits a deep minimum, since the Coulomb amplitude and the nuclear amplitude almost cancel each other out, resulting in a pronounced deviation from pure Mott scattering. A new set of precise data in the-energy range between 300 and 407 keV was recorded using the accelerator of the IKP Münster by employing a thin gas jet target with an areal density smaller than 8 × 10 14 cm −2 . For the first time p-p scattering near the interference minimum was studied under single scattering conditions using a high quality ion beam (energy spread <40 eV). Since the energy smearing was two orders of magnitude lower than that of the former measurements, a more detailed evaluation of the data was feasible, resulting in differential cross sections near the minimum which are smaller than published before. The measured values cannot be explained by the interference of the Coulomb and the nuclear amplitude alone but suggest the need for vacuum polarization or other additional effects. The position of the minimum was determined to be (382.8 ± 0.1) keV.
The absolute differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at 90° c.m. for 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 MeV. The statistical uncertainty of the measurements is 0.5% with an additional systematic normalization uncertainty of 1.8%. The results are compared to phase-shift analyses.
We present results on $\pi^+$-p interactions at 500 MeV from an experiment performed with the Saclay 35 cm hydrogen bubble chamber. A total of 1840 events have been observed. The branching ratio for elastic events is equal to 0.883$\pm$0.008. Eight events are unambiguously attributed to the reaction $\pi^+p\to\pi^+p\gamma$. Cross sections for the various reactions are given. The elastic angular distribution has been determined up to cos$\theta$ = +0.975 and shows evidence for S, P, D waves in good agreement with the results obtained in other experiments. For the one-pion production reactions, the ratio of $\pi^0$ production to $\pi^+$ production is found equal to 4.1$\pm$0.8. This result and the corresponding distributions for momentum and angle of the secondaries are compared with the predictions of the isobaric models.
Photographic plates were used to study the angular distribotion of 360 plus or minus 10 Mev pi /sup +/ mesons elastically scattered by protons. The differential cross sections derived from 218 scattering events for SP analysis and for SPD analysis are given. The phase shifts which correspond to these distributions are also given.