The elastic scattering of 300-Mev negative pions from hydrogen was studied with the aid of a hodoscopic system with pulse-fed counters. Equation (1) gives the angular distribution for the elastic scattering under the hypothesis that the fundamental contribution to the scattering comes from the S and P waves.
Results of measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of 11'- mesons of energies 240, 270, 307 and 333 Mev by hydrogen are given.
The results are given of the measurement of the differential cross sections of charge-exchange scattering of 240, 270, 307, and 333-Mev 1r- mesons on hydrogen.
The total 1r- -p interaction cross sections (of) were measured with an accuracy of 1.5-2% for about 50 pion energies between 140 and 360 Mev. The pion energy was known to within ± 1%. No anomalies in the energy dependence of Of were found which could indicate the existence of a p0meson with a mass in the range of 270 to 410 Mev/c2• The data are inconsistent with the energy value E2 = 650 Mev for the second maximum of Of found by Frisch et al. 7 but agree with the conclusion drawn by Brisson et al. 8 that it should be located at a lower energy ( E2 :::::: 610 Mev). The data are in agreement with the dispersion relations for 1r- -p scattering. It is thus demonstrated that the PuppiStanghellini problem as such no longer exists and that it arose only as a result of an inaccurate knowledge of the total 1r--p interaction cross section.
The differential cross section for π − p → n π o has been measured in detail from 150 to 600 MeV. The backward cross section has a previously unobserved dramatic dip at 425 MeV. We interpret this dip in terms of interference between the P 33 (1236) and the P 11 (1470) resonances. These data provide strong evidence for the adequacy of the phase shift solutions in this energy range.
SCALED TO AGREE WITH SOLUTION AT 225 MEV AND THEN INTERPOLATED.
From the Kelly compilation.
From the Kelly compilation.
Differential cross sections for elastic π−p scattering were measured at eight energies for positive pions and seven energies for negative pions. Energies ranged from 310 to 650 MeV. These measurements were made at the 3-GeV proton synchrotron at Saclay, France. A beam of pions from an internal BeO target was directed into a liquid-hydrogen target. Fifty-one scintillation counters and a matrix-coincidence system were used to measure simultaneously elastic events at 21 angles and charged inelastic events at 78 π−p angle pairs. Events were detected by coincidence of pulses indicating the presence of an incident pion, scattered pion, and recoil proton, and the results were stored in the memory of a pulse-height analyzer. Various corrections were applied to the data and a least-squares fit was made to the results at each energy. The form of the fitting function was a power series in the cosine of the center-of-mass angle of the scattered pion. Integration under the fitted curves gave values for the total elastic cross sections (without charge exchange). The importance of certain angular-momentum states is discussed. The π−−p data are consistent with a D13 resonant state at 600 MeV, but do not necessarily require such a resonant state.
The differential cross section and recoil-proton polarization in π−−p elastic scattering at 310-MeV incident-pion energy has been measured. The differential cross section was measured at 28 angles in the angular region 25<~θlab<~160 deg. The fractional rms errors were typically 3%. The reaction was observed by counting the scattered pions emerging from a liquid-hydrogen target with a counter telescope consisting of scintillation and Čerenkov counters. Simultaneously, the recoil-proton polarization was measured at four angles in the angular region 114<θc.m.<146 deg. The recoil protons from the liquid-hydrogen target were scattered from a carbon target and the left-right asymmetry was measured. Scintillation counters were used throughout to detect the particles.
Neutron angular distributions from the charge-exchange (π0n) and inelastic modes (π0π0n,π+π−n) of the π−−p interaction have been investigated at 313 and 371 MeV incident-pion kinetic energy. The data were obtained with an electronic counter system. Elastic and inelastic neutrons were separated in the all-neutral final states by time of flight. At both energies the charge-exchange differential cross section at the forward neutron angles differs from that determined by Caris et al. from measurements of the π0-decay gamma distributions, but generally agrees with the phase-shift-analysis calculations of Roper. The distribution of inelastic neutrons from both modes shows a strong preference for low center-of-mass neutron energies. The distribution of these neutrons does not correspond to that expected from the I=0, π−π interaction (ABC effect) suggested to account for the anomaly in p−d collisions observed by Abashian et al. Finally, all available charge-exchange differential-cross-section data from this and other experiments were combined by at least-squares fit to a Legendre expansion of the form dσdΩ*(cosθπ0*)=Σl=0NalPl(cosθπ0*) with the following results (in mb/sr):
Results are presented of an investigation of the polarization of recoil protons appearing in elastic 1r+ -p scattering through an angle of 140 ± 8° in the c.m.s. at an energy of 307 ± 5 Mev. A polarization value P 1 = -0.19 ± 0.17 has been deriver from the data on the magnitude of the left-right asymmetry in elastic scattering of recoil protons on photographic emulsion nuclei. Phase shifts satisfying the indicated polarization value and consistent with the differential cross section for elastic scattering of 71"+ -mesons by protons are given by Eq. (1). Problems connected with the use of various phase shift sets for analysis of the experimental data are discussed.
Total cross sections of π+ and π− mesons on protons and deuterons have been measured in a transmission experiment to relative accuracies of ±0.2% over the laboratory momentum range 0.46-2.67 GeV/c. The systematic error is estimated to be about ±0.5% over most of the range, increasing to about ±2% near both ends. Data have been obtained at momentum intervals of 25-50 MeV/c with a momentum resolution of ±0.6%. No new structure is observed in the π±p total cross sections, but results differ in several details from previous experiments. From 1-2 GeV/c, where systematic erros are the smallest, the total cross section of π− mesons on deuterons is found to be consistently higher than that of π+ mesons by (1.3±0.3)%; about half of this difference may be understood in terms of Coulomb-barrier effects. The πd and πN total cross sections are used to check the validity of the Glauber theory. Substantial disagreements (up to 2 mb) are observed, and the conclusion is drawn that the Glauber theory is inadequate in this momentum range.
The differential cross section for charge-exchange scattering of negative pions by hydrogen has been observed at 230, 260, 290, 317, and 371 Mev. The reaction was observed by detecting one gamma ray from the π0 decay with a scintillation-counter telescope. A least-squares analysis was performed to fit the observations to the function dσdω=Σl=15alPl−1(cosθ) in the c.m. frame. The best fit to our experimental measurements requires only s- and p-wave scattering. The results (in mb) are: The least-squares analysis indicates that d-wave scattering is not established in this energy range.
Differential cross sections for π + p and π − p elastic scattering have been measured with an accuracy of typically ±2% at 10 and 9 energies respectively in the range 88 to 292 MeV of lab kinetic energy.
No description provided.
No description provided.
Measurements have been made of the π ∓ proton total cross sections over the laboratory kinetic energy range 70 to 290 MeV. The absolute accuracy of the data is generally 0.5 %, but decreases to 1 % for some points where applied corrections are large or where low particle fluxes limit the statistical accuracy.
No description provided.
Measurements have been made of the total charge-exchange cross section π − p to π 0 n over the laboratory kinetic energy range 90 to 290 MeV. The data have an absolute accuracy of typically 1%, and have here been used to determine the pion-nucleon P 13 phase shift.
First data are presented for the polarized-target asymmetry in the reaction π+p→π+pγ at an incident pion energy of 298 MeV. The geometry was chosen to maximize the sensitivity to the radiation of the magnetic dipole moment μΔ of the Δ++(1232 MeV). A fit of the asymmetry in the cross section d5σ/dΩπ dΩγ dk as a function of the photon energy k to predictions from a recent isobar-model calculation with μΔ as the only free parameter yields μΔ=1.64(±0.19expΔ,±0.14 theor)μp. Though this value agrees with bag-model corrections to the SU(6) prediction μΔ=2μp, further clarifications on the model dependence of the result are needed, in particular since the isobar model fails to describe both the cross section and the asymmetry at the highest photon energies.
The π−p charge-exchange analyzing power has been measured from 547 to 687 MeV/c in the center-of-mass angular range -0.9≤cosθ̃π≤0.9 using a transversely polarized target. The recoil neutron was detected in coincidence with a photon from π0 decay. The results are compared with the three recent partial-wave analyses (PWA’s); the VPI analysis is most consistent with our measured distributions except at 687 MeV/c where no PWA agrees with our data. The charge-exchange transversity cross sections are evaluated using the differential cross sections of Borcherding et al. These transversity cross sections are used in conjunction with earlier π±p data by our group to test the triangle inequalities which are a model-independent test of isospin invariance. Our data satisfy these inequalities everywhere; in contrast, Abaev et al. have reported a violation of more than 5 standard deviations at 685 MeV/c.
d2σdΩdT for π+ mesons produced in π−p→π−π+n was measured at seven incident energies between 203 and 357 MeV and the integrated reaction cross section was calculated. The matrix element, when extrapolated to threshold and compared with soft-pion calculations, determined the chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter ξ=0.05±0.26, which is consistent with the Weinberg Lagrangian. The large hard-pion contributions at 203 MeV demonstrated the absolute necessity for comparing at threshold.
Axis error includes +- 0.0/0.0 contribution (?////).
The polarization parameter in elastic π−p scattering has been measured, at the Berkeley 184-in. synchrocyclotron, with the use of a polarized proton target. At 318-, 337-, and 390-MeV incident pion kinetic energy, the angular range from 70° to 180° in the center-of-mass system was covered. At 229 MeV, polarization measurements were made in the angular range 150° to 180°. Phase-shift analyses, using these and other published data, were made at the two lowest energies.
The elastic differential cross section for the scattering of negative pions by hydrogen was measured at laboratory-system pion kinetic energies of 230, 290, 370, and 427 Mev. The elastically scattered pions were detected by a counter telescope which discriminated against recoil protons and inelastic pions on the basis of range. Differential cross sections were obtained at nine angles for each energy and were fitted by a least-squares program to a series of Legendre polynomials. At the three higher energies, D waves are required to give satisfactory fits to the data. The real parts of the forward-scattering amplitudes calculated from this experiment are in agreement with the predictions of dispersion theory. The results of this experiment, in conjunction with data from other pion-nucleon scattering experiments, support the hypothesis of charge independence at these higher energies.
Total cross sections for negative pions on protons were measured at laboratory energies of 230, 290, 370, 427, and 460 Mev. The measurements were made in the same pion beams as and at energies identical with those of our π−−p differential scattering experiments. Comparisons of the total and differential scattering can be made with the dispersion theory at a given energy without introducing the systematic errors that would normally enter due to uncertainties in the parameters of more than one pion beam. The measured total cross sections are found to agree within statistics with other measured values, and with the sums of elastic, inelastic, and charge-exchange cross sections measured at this laboratory. The results are: