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Results of measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of 11'- mesons of energies 240, 270, 307 and 333 Mev by hydrogen are given.
The elastic scattering of 300-Mev negative pions from hydrogen was studied with the aid of a hodoscopic system with pulse-fed counters. Equation (1) gives the angular distribution for the elastic scattering under the hypothesis that the fundamental contribution to the scattering comes from the S and P waves.
Differential cross sections for π + p and π − p elastic scattering have been measured with an accuracy of typically ±2% at 10 and 9 energies respectively in the range 88 to 292 MeV of lab kinetic energy.
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Differential cross sections for elastic π−p scattering were measured at eight energies for positive pions and seven energies for negative pions. Energies ranged from 310 to 650 MeV. These measurements were made at the 3-GeV proton synchrotron at Saclay, France. A beam of pions from an internal BeO target was directed into a liquid-hydrogen target. Fifty-one scintillation counters and a matrix-coincidence system were used to measure simultaneously elastic events at 21 angles and charged inelastic events at 78 π−p angle pairs. Events were detected by coincidence of pulses indicating the presence of an incident pion, scattered pion, and recoil proton, and the results were stored in the memory of a pulse-height analyzer. Various corrections were applied to the data and a least-squares fit was made to the results at each energy. The form of the fitting function was a power series in the cosine of the center-of-mass angle of the scattered pion. Integration under the fitted curves gave values for the total elastic cross sections (without charge exchange). The importance of certain angular-momentum states is discussed. The π−−p data are consistent with a D13 resonant state at 600 MeV, but do not necessarily require such a resonant state.
The differential cross section and recoil-proton polarization in π−−p elastic scattering at 310-MeV incident-pion energy has been measured. The differential cross section was measured at 28 angles in the angular region 25<~θlab<~160 deg. The fractional rms errors were typically 3%. The reaction was observed by counting the scattered pions emerging from a liquid-hydrogen target with a counter telescope consisting of scintillation and Čerenkov counters. Simultaneously, the recoil-proton polarization was measured at four angles in the angular region 114<θc.m.<146 deg. The recoil protons from the liquid-hydrogen target were scattered from a carbon target and the left-right asymmetry was measured. Scintillation counters were used throughout to detect the particles.
The polarization parameter in elastic π−p scattering has been measured, at the Berkeley 184-in. synchrocyclotron, with the use of a polarized proton target. At 318-, 337-, and 390-MeV incident pion kinetic energy, the angular range from 70° to 180° in the center-of-mass system was covered. At 229 MeV, polarization measurements were made in the angular range 150° to 180°. Phase-shift analyses, using these and other published data, were made at the two lowest energies.
The elastic differential cross section for the scattering of negative pions by hydrogen was measured at laboratory-system pion kinetic energies of 230, 290, 370, and 427 Mev. The elastically scattered pions were detected by a counter telescope which discriminated against recoil protons and inelastic pions on the basis of range. Differential cross sections were obtained at nine angles for each energy and were fitted by a least-squares program to a series of Legendre polynomials. At the three higher energies, D waves are required to give satisfactory fits to the data. The real parts of the forward-scattering amplitudes calculated from this experiment are in agreement with the predictions of dispersion theory. The results of this experiment, in conjunction with data from other pion-nucleon scattering experiments, support the hypothesis of charge independence at these higher energies.