Seventeen differential cross sections of the pion-nucleon charge-exchange reaction have been measured at total center-of-mass energies of 1245, 1337, and 1363 MeV. Most measurements are based on the neutron-photon coincidence method, using carefully calibrated neutron counters and an efficient, large-area photon detector. The results are used to test the predictions of charge independence, with which they agree. The results also confirm the Ayed-Bareyre-Sonderegger phase-degeneracy hypothesis at θ̃π0=180°.
The π − p→n γ and π − p→n π ° differential cross sections have been measured for −0.9< cos θ ∗ <−0.45 (θ ∗ c.m. scattering angle) at 475 MeV/ c and 550 MeV/ c incident momenta. The π − p→n γ measurement is a good check of the detailed balance principle in the electromagnetic interactions of hadrons at these energies and is in good agreement with Walker's analysis. On the other hand the π − p→ π °n extrapolated values of 180° allows one to verify that the phases of the A 1 2 and A 3 2 amplitudes are equal.
Differential cross sections for π + p and π − p elastic scattering have been measured with an accuracy of typically ±2% at 10 and 9 energies respectively in the range 88 to 292 MeV of lab kinetic energy.
We report a new measurement of the π−p→3π0n total cross section from threshold to pπ=0.75GeV/c. The cross section near the N(1535)12− resonance is only a few μb after subtracting the large η→3π0 background associated with π−p→ηn. A simple analysis of our data results in the estimated branching fraction B[S11→πN(1440)12+]=(8±2)%. This is the first such estimate obtained with a three-pion production reaction.
The pion induced pion production reactions π±p→π+π±n were studied at projectile incident energies of 223, 243, 264, 284, and 305 MeV, using a cryogenic liquid hydrogen target. The Canadian High Acceptance Orbit Spectrometer was used to detect the two outgoing pions in coincidence. The experimental results are presented in the form of single differential cross sections. Total cross sections obtained by integrating the differential quantities are also reported. In addition, the invariant mass distributions from the (π+π−) channel were fitted to determine the parameters for an extended model based on that of Oset and Vicente-Vacas. We find the model parameters obtained from fitting the (π+π−) data do not describe the invariant mass distributions in the (π+π+) channel.
First data are presented for the polarized-target asymmetry in the reaction π+p→π+pγ at an incident pion energy of 298 MeV. The geometry was chosen to maximize the sensitivity to the radiation of the magnetic dipole moment μΔ of the Δ++(1232 MeV). A fit of the asymmetry in the cross section d5σ/dΩπ dΩγ dk as a function of the photon energy k to predictions from a recent isobar-model calculation with μΔ as the only free parameter yields μΔ=1.64(±0.19expΔ,±0.14 theor)μp. Though this value agrees with bag-model corrections to the SU(6) prediction μΔ=2μp, further clarifications on the model dependence of the result are needed, in particular since the isobar model fails to describe both the cross section and the asymmetry at the highest photon energies.
The left-right asymmetry of π−p→γn has been measured using a transversely polarized target at seven pion momenta from 301 to 625 MeV/c, mostly at photon angles of 90° and 110° c.m. The final-state γ and neutron were detected in coincidence. Neutrons were recorded in two arrays of plastic scintillators and the γ's in two matching sets of lead-glass counters. The results are compared with the predictions from the two most recent single-pion photoproduction partial-wave analyses. The agreement with the analysis of Arai and Fujii is poor, casting some doubt on the correctness of their values for the radiative decay amplitude of the neutral Roper resonance which are used widely. The agreement is much better with the results of the VPI analysis. Also, a comparison is made with the recoil-proton polarization data from the inverse reaction measured at 90° with a deuterium target. It reveals substantial discrepancies, indicating the shortcomings of the deuterium experiments for neutron target experiments. Our data are also compared with several bag-model calculations.
Differential cross sections for π−p→γn have been determined from 427 to 625 MeV/c, mainly at 90° and 110° c.m. The data were obtained by combining measurements of the Panofsky ratio in flight with known charge-exchange cross sections. The results are compared with γn→π−p data derived from γd experiments; the difference is typically 30%. The radiative decay amplitudes of neutral πN resonances are therefore uncertain by at least 30%.
The elastic differential cross section for the scattering of negative pions by hydrogen was measured at laboratory-system pion kinetic energies of 230, 290, 370, and 427 Mev. The elastically scattered pions were detected by a counter telescope which discriminated against recoil protons and inelastic pions on the basis of range. Differential cross sections were obtained at nine angles for each energy and were fitted by a least-squares program to a series of Legendre polynomials. At the three higher energies, D waves are required to give satisfactory fits to the data. The real parts of the forward-scattering amplitudes calculated from this experiment are in agreement with the predictions of dispersion theory. The results of this experiment, in conjunction with data from other pion-nucleon scattering experiments, support the hypothesis of charge independence at these higher energies.
Total cross sections for negative pions on protons were measured at laboratory energies of 230, 290, 370, 427, and 460 Mev. The measurements were made in the same pion beams as and at energies identical with those of our π−−p differential scattering experiments. Comparisons of the total and differential scattering can be made with the dispersion theory at a given energy without introducing the systematic errors that would normally enter due to uncertainties in the parameters of more than one pion beam. The measured total cross sections are found to agree within statistics with other measured values, and with the sums of elastic, inelastic, and charge-exchange cross sections measured at this laboratory. The results are:
A precise measurement of the differential cross section at zero degrees for the pion charge-exchange reaction π−p→π0n at pπ=522 MeV/c has been made. The result is dσdΩ (0∘)=4.32±0.11 mb/sr.
The spin-rotation parameters A and R and the related spin-rotation angle β have been measured for π+p and π−p elastic scattering using protons polarized in the scattering plane. The pion-beam momenta are 427, 471, 547, 625, and 657 MeV/c and the angular range is −0.9≤cosΘc.m.≤0.3. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence, using a scintillator hodoscope for the pions, and the Large Acceptance Spectrometer combined with the JANUS polarimeter for the recoil protons. The results are compared with the four recent πN partial wave analyses (PWA's). Our data show that the major features of these PWA's are correct. The A and R measurements complete our program of pion-nucleon experiments, providing full data sets at three of the above beam momenta. Such sets can be used to test the constraints in the PWA's or to obtain a model-independent set of πN scattering amplitudes.
Measurements have been made of the total charge-exchange cross section π − p to π 0 n over the laboratory kinetic energy range 90 to 290 MeV. The data have an absolute accuracy of typically 1%, and have here been used to determine the pion-nucleon P 13 phase shift.
Reaction π−p→π0π0n has been measured with high statistics in the beam momentum range 270–750MeV∕c. The data were obtained using the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer, which has 93% of 4π solid angle coverage. The dynamics of the π−p→π0π0n reaction and the dependence on the beam energy are displayed in total cross sections, Dalitz plots, invariant-mass spectra, and production angular distributions. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the acceptance that is needed for the precision determination of the total cross section σt(π−p→π0π0n). The energy dependence of σt(π−p→π0π0n) shows a shoulder at the Roper resonance [i.e., the N(1440)12+], and there is also a maximum near the N(1520)32−. It illustrates the importance of these two resonances to the π0π0 production process. The Dalitz plots are highly nonuniform; they indicate that the π0π0n final state is dominantly produced via the π0Δ0(1232) intermediate state. The invariant-mass spectra differ much from the phase-space distributions. The production angular distributions are also different from the isotropic distribution, and their structure depends on the beam energy. For beam momenta above 550MeV∕c, the density distribution in the Dalitz plots strongly depends on the angle of the outgoing dipion system (or equivalently on the neutron angle). The role of the f0(600) meson (also known as the σ) in π0π0n production remains controversial.
The polarization parameter in elastic π−p scattering has been measured, at the Berkeley 184-in. synchrocyclotron, with the use of a polarized proton target. At 318-, 337-, and 390-MeV incident pion kinetic energy, the angular range from 70° to 180° in the center-of-mass system was covered. At 229 MeV, polarization measurements were made in the angular range 150° to 180°. Phase-shift analyses, using these and other published data, were made at the two lowest energies.
The analyzing power of π−p→π0n has been measured for pπ=301−625 MeV/c with a transversely polarized target, mainly in the backward hemisphere. The final-state neutron and a γ from the π0 were detected in coincidence with two counter arrays. Our results are compared with predictions of recent πN partial-wave analyses by the groups of Karlsruhe-Helsinki, Carnegie-Mellon University-Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (CMU-LBL), and Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI). At the lower incident energies little difference is seen among the three analyses, and there is excellent agreement with our data. At 547 MeV/c and above, our data strongly favor the VPI phases, and disagree with Karlsruhe-Helsinki and CMU-LBL analyses, which are the source of the πN resonance parameters given in the Particle Data Group table.
The asymmetry parameter A in π−p elastic scattering at incident pion laboratory kinetic energies Tπ of 98, 238, and 2922 MeV and in π−p charge-exchange scattering π−p→π0n at Tπ=238, 292, and 310 MeV have been measured over a wide range of scattering angles (typically from about 60° to 130° c.m.) with a polarized proton target. The data have been used in an energy-independent phase-shift analysis to improve the precision of the pion-nucleon phase shifts, to set new limits on violation of isospin conservation in the pion-nucleon S wave, and to confirm significant charge dependence in the P32 wave.
The total cross sections of π± on protons in the momentum interval from 0.40 to 0.90 GeV/c have been measured with high relative precision. In this interval the statistical error varies between 10 and 20 μb. No new structure is observed.
The analyzing power for π−p→π0n has been measured at five incident momenta from 547 to 687 MeV/c using a transversely polarized target. Data were obtained with scintillation counters at 10 angles simultaneously covering the range −0.9≤cosθc.m.π≤0.9. Our results and those of Kim et al. are used for a model-independent test of isospin invariance which is based on the triangle inequalities applied to the transversity-up as well as the transversity-down cross sections. No evidence is found of isospin violation.
The polarization of the recoil proton in π+p and π−p elastic scattering using a liquid-hydrogen target has been measured for backward angles at 547 and 625 MeV/c. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the large-acceptance spectrometer to detect and analyze the momentum of the pions and the JANUS polarimeter to identify and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment agree with other measurements of the recoil polarization, with analyzing-power data previously taken by this group, and with predictions of partial-wave analyses.
The π−p charge-exchange analyzing power has been measured from 547 to 687 MeV/c in the center-of-mass angular range -0.9≤cosθ̃π≤0.9 using a transversely polarized target. The recoil neutron was detected in coincidence with a photon from π0 decay. The results are compared with the three recent partial-wave analyses (PWA’s); the VPI analysis is most consistent with our measured distributions except at 687 MeV/c where no PWA agrees with our data. The charge-exchange transversity cross sections are evaluated using the differential cross sections of Borcherding et al. These transversity cross sections are used in conjunction with earlier π±p data by our group to test the triangle inequalities which are a model-independent test of isospin invariance. Our data satisfy these inequalities everywhere; in contrast, Abaev et al. have reported a violation of more than 5 standard deviations at 685 MeV/c.
Differential cross sections have been measured for π+p and π−p elastic scattering at 378, 408, 427, 471, 509, 547, 586, 625, 657, and 687 MeV/c in the angular range -0.8<cosθc.m.<0.8. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using scintillation-counter hodoscopes. A liquid-hydrogen target was used except for measurements at forward angles, in which a CH2 target was used. Statistical uncertainties in the data are typically less than 1%. Systematic uncertainties in acceptance and detection efficiency are estimated to be 1%. Absolute normalization uncertainties are 2–3 % for most of the data. The measurements are compared with previous data and with the results of recent partial-wave analyses. The data are fit with Legendre expansions from which total elastic cross sections are obtained.
We have measured the fivefold differential cross section d5σ/dΩπdΩγdEγ for the process π+p→π+pγ with incident pions of energy 299 MeV. The angular regions for the outgoing pions (55°≤θlabπ≤95°), and photons (θlabγ=241°±10°) in coplanar geometry are selected to maximize the sensitivity to the radiation from the magnetic dipole moment of the Δ++(1232) resonance. At low photon energies, the data agree with the soft-photon approximation to pion-proton bremsstrahlung. At forward pion angles the data agree with older data and with the latest theoretical calculations for 2.3μp≤μΔ≤3.3μp. However at more backward pion angles where no data existed, the predictions fail.
Result of cross section measurements for the reaction π − p → π − π + n are presented. They cover a range of incident pion momenta between 295 and 450 MeV/ c . It is the first time that the cross section has been measured so close to threshold. The experiment was performed with Omicron, a large-solid-angle spectrometer, which enables a measurement of the full set of kinematic variables. In the region of overlap there is a good agreement with other experiments. The extracted value for the chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter ξ is seen to be largely extrapolition dependent but the measured value of -0.5±0.8 leaves Weinberg's prediction of ξ =0 the only remaining choice.